Author: Martin Bergstedt

About the Author

Martin Bergstedt

Name: Martin Bergstedt

Bio: Martin Bergstedt is an experienced executive, with a Chemical Engineering degree from the University of Minnesota. He first joined Economics Laboratory at their pilot plant, performing process development and plant start-ups. From there he held positions of progressively increasing scope and responsibility at ETD Technology and DuPont Electronics, and then spent ten years in General Manager positions with Aptus (Westinghouse) Environmental and USFilter (Veolia). He worked at U.S. Water Services as Director of Engineering and Project Management, overseeing the design, specification and installation of water treatment systems for 60 new ethanol plants in a three year period, and is currently General Manager, Eastern U.S. at Amazon Environmental. His greatest successes are when taking underperforming or inexperienced organizations and forging a cohesive effort to accomplish the project or profit objectives.

April 14th, 2014

Modular Reactor Systems for Remote Waste-Gas Conversion

By Martin Bergstedt
firemesh blue

The difficulties in capturing and efficiently utilizing flare gas in the Northern Shale Oil fields are primarily ones of scale and lack of infrastructure. The Ceramatec corporation is working on cost effective modular solutions to this challenge of energy conservation and conversion.

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April 9th, 2014

The World Needs Engineering Judgment

By Martin Bergstedt
Bill Banholzer

William Banholzer, retired Dow Chemical CTO, gave an insightful and wide-ranging address on the the state of technology changes for the future, and the chemical engineer’s special capability to make sensible and better decisions for the direction of these changes, especially in the field of energy.

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April 8th, 2014

2014 Spring Poster Session: Operational Discipline with DuPont

By Martin Bergstedt

Brian D. Rains, Global Operational Risk Management Leader at DuPont, discusses Operational Discipline at the 2014 Spring Meeting & 10th Annual GCGP Poster Session.

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April 7th, 2014

Is There a “Magic” Biomass Crop?

By Martin Bergstedt

Dr. Shijie Liu of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry presented a thoughtful overview of the biofuels evaluation protocol that was assembled and applied in The Manomet Report for the State of Massachusetts.

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April 4th, 2014

Mercury Removal at Coal-Fired Power Plants

By Martin Bergstedt

Removal of Mercury from the combustion air stream at a coal-fired power plant is one of the most sensitive and challenging tasks of pollution control. Dr. Noah Meeks of The Southern Company discussed mercury removal strategies.

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April 2nd, 2014

Freshmen Chemical Engineers in Legoland

By Martin Bergstedt

Dr. Bill Elmore at Mississippi State University has begun a class for freshman ChemEs, drawing on Legos to help incoming students find out whether the chemical engineering program is where they truly want to be.

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December 18th, 2013


By Martin Bergstedt
EM diagram

On Location DESYREL FOR SALE, As part of the "Osmotic Processes for the 21st Century" sessions at the AIChE 2013 Annual Meeting, Dr. DESYREL coupon, Jeffrey McCutcheon of UConn's Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering made a presentation on nanofiber-supported thin film composite (TFC) membranes. The crux of the talk was that conventional asymmetrical membrane structures cause severe mass transfer limitations, DESYREL no rx, Buy cheap DESYREL, and that future membrane designs needed to focus on mimicking the functionality and specificity of biological membrane systems.

The "Now"

Most membrane operate in a "pressure" mode, kjøpe DESYREL på nett, köpa DESYREL online, Buy generic DESYREL, where the mass transfer driving force is a supplied pressure differential, sometimes at hundreds of psi, DESYREL description. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, As such, the design of membranes has to account for this, buy DESYREL without prescription, Buy DESYREL no prescription, and a composite structure of an active membrane layer in conjunction with a porous support structure has evolved. This traditional structure has an inherent flaw, in that the support structure is itself a strong barrier to mass transfer of the permeating species.

Tweak or toss?

In designing a new membrane system, DESYREL online cod, Low dose DESYREL, the first question is whether the approach should be to modify an existing design or concept, or toss tradition aside and design anew, DESYREL recreational. The advantages of a radically new design include the ability to tune the structure and chemistry for specific applications, as well as the possibility of using a variety of special and "selective" materials and polymer processing methods, DESYREL FOR SALE. DESYREL from canadian pharmacy, The disadvantages are the requirement for development of new interfacial polymerization techniques, along with the fact that many novel formation approaches may not be scaleable and/or could be expensive, DESYREL brand name. Is DESYREL addictive, One of the primary goals for a new design was the creation of support layers that are thin, highly porous, online buying DESYREL hcl, Herbal DESYREL, non-tortuous, and hydrophilic, taking DESYREL. DESYREL dosage, Electrospun nanofibers fit the bill.

Electrospinning nanofibers

The goal is to build a radically different and tunable supporting material for thin film composite membranes that combines the benefits of hydrophilicity with high porosity, DESYREL price, Is DESYREL safe, but without sacrificing scaleability. DESYREL FOR SALE, Electrospinning can be used to produce submicron sized fibers in nonwoven mats that exhibit high porosity and low tortuosity. Polymers that can be electrospun in this way include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), cellulose acetate (CA), and nylon. Spun onto polyethyleneterepthalate, about DESYREL, DESYREL reviews, these polymers can be "tuned" with respect to fiber size and morphology, thus allowing customization of performance and selectivity unknown with existing film technologies, DESYREL steet value. DESYREL trusted pharmacy reviews,

Interfacial polymerization

In order to complete the TFC membrane, a process called interfacial polymerization is utilized. Trimesoyl Chloride ( 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylic acid chloride) and 1,3-benzene diamine are co-polymerized in contact with the nanofiber mat, and in addition to the co-polymerization, the free (third) acid chloride can react with the nanofibers to form the amide creating an interfacially formed polyamide.

Preliminary indications

Nanofiber TFC membranes are a unique platform for osmotic processes, particularly those of the low pressure variety such as forward osmosis and osmotic dilution. The nanocomposite-supported TFC membranes produced in this research effort exhibit two to three times higher water flux than standard RO membranes, DESYREL FOR SALE.  These membranes can also be made  pressure tolerant for high pressure RO applications.

Jeffrey R. McCutcheonFor more information on the exciting new directions that membrane designs are taking, contact Dr. Jeffrey McCutcheon at the University of Connecticut.

Images: Dr. Jeffrey McCutcheon

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December 10th, 2013


By Martin Bergstedt

On Location BUY TAMIFLU NO PRESCRIPTION, Metal sulfides are currently under intense study as alternates to silicon and germanium semi-conductor materials. Metal sulfide nanocrystals (e.g., PbS, CdS, etc.) have typically been synthesized in hot solvent-solution phase systems that bring with them a host of quality and productivity issues. Generic TAMIFLU, Current work at the University of Minnesota seeks to avoid these problems by utilizing a non-thermal plasma reactor and deposition system for nanocrystal production.

Prior process and issues

Using a hot solvent systems, order TAMIFLU online overnight delivery no prescription, Buy cheap TAMIFLU no rx, reactants are injected into the solvent where the nanocrystals form. Once formed, TAMIFLU pharmacy, Where can i buy TAMIFLU online, the nanocrystals must be cast onto a surface. The solvent system is prone to inclusion of impurities in the crystals, TAMIFLU results, TAMIFLU price, coupon, and it is difficult to scale up to achieve high through-put. In addition, the solvent eventually requires disposal as a hazardous waste, TAMIFLU from canada, TAMIFLU brand name, thus adding to the cost and inefficiency overall. In preliminary work at the University of Minnesota, creation of metal sulfide nanocrystals using a non-thermal plasma process, with subsequent crystal deposition, has proven to be a viable alternative for the problematic hot solvent approach, BUY TAMIFLU NO PRESCRIPTION.

The technology

The first set of experiments were focused on the production of zinc sulfide, order TAMIFLU from mexican pharmacy, Discount TAMIFLU, a wide band gap semiconductor that has been used as a buffer layer in thin film solar cells and as a surface passivization shell for semiconductor quantum dots. The experimental set-up utilized a tubular glass chamber surrounded by a Radio Frequency (RF) generator that is used to create the non-thermal plasma, TAMIFLU dosage. Ordering TAMIFLU online, Argon is used as the carrier gas for the plasma-based reaction. In separate feed systems, buy TAMIFLU from canada, Rx free TAMIFLU, the argon carrier was infused with elemental sulfur vapor and diethyl zinc vapor. BUY TAMIFLU NO PRESCRIPTION, Elemental sulfur was chosen over hydrogen sulfide for toxicity (of the H2S) reasons. Once formed, TAMIFLU from canadian pharmacy, Online buying TAMIFLU hcl, the particles are deposited on an outlet filter of silicon.

Preliminary results

The apparatus has been shown to produce single crystal nano particles that are stable for months, cheap TAMIFLU. Buy no prescription TAMIFLU online, Crystalline ZnS particles with 2–10 nm diameters were synthesized. Electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were single crystals. Reaction times of 10ms were observed and production rates of 250mg/hr with 25% mass yield were achieved in the small (8 cc) bench scale reactor, TAMIFLU cost.

Because of the nature of the feed system and reaction process, the size and composition of the nanocrystals are controllable, BUY TAMIFLU NO PRESCRIPTION. Doses TAMIFLU work, Flow rates (residence times), system pressures and feed ratios, buy cheap TAMIFLU, Cheap TAMIFLU no rx, and compositions are all factors, and the system exhibits a wide process window, online buy TAMIFLU without a prescription. Herbal TAMIFLU, The nanocrystals can be deposited on substrate surfaces directly or formed into stable nanocrystal dispersions. It is believed that this is the first production of metal sulfide nanocrystals using a non-thermal plasma process.

Elijah THimsen

Future Directions

Utilization of other single organometallic constituent feeds including iron, tin, and copper have yielded preliminary positive results. Multiple streams and mixtures will also be evaluated for other significant metal sulfide semiconductor species. For additional information, contact Elijah Thimsen.
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December 5th, 2013


By Martin Bergstedt
PCIL and CO2

On Location BUY GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, The ability to capture or sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixed gas streams is under intense study by many researchers using many methods. No prescription GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE online, Reducing the emission of this greenhouse gas, especially from combustion and power generation sources, doses GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE work, GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, is critical to environmental improvement. In a session at the 2013 AIChE Annual Meeting, GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE from mexico, Where can i buy GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE online, the use of ionic liquids that change phase in the presence of CO2 for this purpose was discussed and a novel CO2 capture process was proposed.

Limitations of current chemical systems

Aqueous amines such as monoethanolamine are currently in use in combustion gas treatment systems as CO2 sequestration agents, online buying GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE hcl. GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE recreational, They have several attributes that negatively affect their cost of use, including:

  • High volatility

  • Corrosive nature

  • Need water as cosolvent

  • Needed in a 2:1 mole ratio with CO2

Phase Change Ionic Liquids (PCILs) have the ability to absorb 1:1 mole ration of CO2 with none of the aqueous amines' problems, my GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE experience.

Phase change ionic liquids

Ionic liquids (IL) are organic compounds of low vapor pressure and high stability with variable melting temperatures that depend upon the nature of the ion pair, BUY GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION. GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE maximum dosage, Ionic pairs can be quite varied, and consideration was given to various cations, kjøpe GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE på nett, köpa GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE online, GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE interactions, such as phosphonium, ammonium and imidazolium ion varieties, purchase GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE online no prescription. Comprar en línea GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE, comprar GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE baratos, In this work the combination that was studied was a organo-phosphonium ion (tetraethylphosphonium+) and an imadazolide ion (benzimidazolide-) that was a solid at room temperature. What was discovered was that when ILs of this composition were melted and then exposed to CO2, after GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE, Cheap GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE, cooled they did not resolidify at the same temperature when cooling, but at one much much lower, taking GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE. GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE for sale, Their melting point dropped from 166C to <60C. BUY GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION, Subsequently, when the CO2 was removed, they resolidified (giving off a heat of fusion). This discovery sparked the idea of a novel process to exploit the phenomena, GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE trusted pharmacy reviews. Effects of GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE,

Proposed process

Combustion gasses high in CO2 content are introduced into an absorber column with the solid form PCIL. The CO2 is absorbed by the PCIL and the resultant "scrubbed" flue gas is discharged (or sent for other contaminant removal processes), GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE samples. GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE long term, The now-liquid PCIL is first sent through a heat recovery exchanger, then to a spray tower, GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE description. In the tower the PCIL gives up its CO2 and solidifies to be sent back (via the exchanger) to the absorber column, BUY GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE NO PRESCRIPTION. Online GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE without a prescription, The viscosity of the absorbed PPCIL is < 100 cp, which is a process advantage, GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE results. Order GENERIC PRILIGY DAPOXETINE from mexican pharmacy, However, the PCIL is hydrophilic, and the presence of water interferes with the crystallization of the PCIL, which may require a flue gas drying step prior to the absorption column.

Moving forward

This technology was named one of "7 Radical Energy Solutions" by Scientific American. Currently, additional lab feasibility demostrations are being performed by the Mid-Atlantic Technology Research and Innovation Center (MATRIC).

For more information contact Samuel Seo, Ph.D. candidate at the University of Notre Dame.

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December 2nd, 2013


By Martin Bergstedt
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On Location CELEBREX FOR SALE, While attending the presentation on "New and Novel Materials for Membrane Separations" by Richard Noble of the University of Colorado, I was fascinated by his discussion of membrane engineering and its application to a non-traditional engineering challenge. My CELEBREX experience, It seems that developing these new "mixed-matrix membrane" systems can benefit our soldiers on the chemical warfare battlefield.

The problems

Anyone who has worn a HazMat suit knows that they can be hotter than the blazes, order CELEBREX no prescription. CELEBREX no prescription, The impervious coating on the suit that protects you from the hazardous environmental conditions outside the suit also traps moisture and heat inside the suit. This can be uncomfortable for someone in industry, buy generic CELEBREX. It can be deadly for a soldier in a hazardous battle zone, CELEBREX FOR SALE. CELEBREX schedule, However, traditional "breathable" fabrics are not particularly adept at blocking chemical intrusions, CELEBREX overnight, CELEBREX reviews, nor can you necessarily tell whether there has been an exposure. What's more, kjøpe CELEBREX på nett, köpa CELEBREX online, CELEBREX mg, once exposed, it's also difficult to know if surface is contaminated (and dangerous!), CELEBREX forum. Get CELEBREX, The challenge then is to engineer a membrane fabric that allows for adequate moisture transport without allowing hazardous agents to pass into the suit, also decontaminating the chemical warfare agent (CWA) and indicating the exposure incident as well, online CELEBREX without a prescription. CELEBREX dangers, Oh, and it should be lightweight and easy to manufacture, CELEBREX from mexico. CELEBREX FOR SALE, A chemical engineering challenge indeed. Purchase CELEBREX online no prescription,

Perspiration transport

For the particular problem, the minimum moisture transport was specified to be 1500 grams/square meter/day, purchase CELEBREX online. CELEBREX description, The use of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with bis(trifyl)imide (Tf2N-) as the anion- and imadazolium-based diols as the cation basis for the membrane polymer were selected on their ability to deliver altered miscibility. The degree of hydrophilicity of these compounds is essentially "tuneable" based on length and nature of the carbon chain opposite the diol on the imadazole ring, CELEBREX online cod. CELEBREX natural, This organic end can also be attached to various olefin monomers and photopolymerized to form the polymer from which the membrane is cast. Various diols and also co-monomers were tested in order to achieve the minimum moisture transport and maximum chemical barrier, CELEBREX FOR SALE. Several promising candidates were discovered that achieved 0% chemical passage and well over 1500 g/sm/d moisture transport, CELEBREX price. Buy CELEBREX without a prescription,

Chemical agent neutralizer

In order to effectively serve a soldier in a conflict, the barrier to the chemical agent needs to be 100% effective for 22 hours (DOD specification), buy CELEBREX online no prescription. CELEBREX used for, Of course, simply being a barrier is a good start, CELEBREX over the counter, CELEBREX blogs, but the ability to actually neutralize the CWA would be much better. In this research, CEES, a mono-dechlorinated form of mustard gas, was used for testing purposes. CELEBREX FOR SALE, Zeolites were chosen as preliminary candidates for the decontamination agents. The specific zeolite chosen for the decontamination of CEES is the well studied zeolite X. The hydrolysis reaction produces the non-active hydroxyl version of the CEES. This reaction happens at room temperature.

By using a "mixed-membrane" approach where zeolite particles are incorporated in the RTIL based polymer, both high moisture fluxes and 100% destruction of the CEES is possible, thus achieving the best of both worlds. In theory, many other unique properties could be provided by different components in the composite or mixed membrane system, CELEBREX FOR SALE.

Future indications

Richard D. Noble

Additional research needs to be done to identify the optimal polymer/zeolite systems from both a performance and cost/manufacturing basis. In addition, the differing nature of CWAs that may be encountered will challenge the nature of the mixed-matrix membrane components.

For more information about this and other new membrane research being conducted at the University of Colorado contact Dr. Richard D. Noble.

What other applications might be suitable to a mixed-matrix membrane approach?

Images: Dr. Richard D. Noble

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