In this week’s final post in the series about a new Golden Age of ChE, Phil Westmoreland writes about our profession’s opportunities and challenges.Read the rest of this entry »
Author: Phil Westmoreland
In this week’s final post in the series about a new Golden Age of ChE, Phil Westmoreland writes about the breadth of chemical engineering and how the many different areas of our profession are linked by a common background and problem-solving approaches.Read the rest of this entry »
In this week’s post about the new Golden Age of ChE and the role of computing, Phil Westmoreland writes about “From Big Data to Smart Manufacturing.”Read the rest of this entry »
In this week’s post about the new Golden Age of ChE, Phil Westmoreland writes about “Massively parallel computing and massive impacts for ChE.”Read the rest of this entry »
Computing and communication networks have become a ubiquitous “cyberinfrastructure” for our personal and professional ChE lives.Read the rest of this entry »
Bioscience has become an important part of chemical engineering. This post reflects on how bioscience and ChE have changed each other and what changes are in store.Read the rest of this entry »
Biology has become a molecular science and an important part of chemical engineering. That began by use of non-bio-specific tools, and now it is influencing ChE directly.Read the rest of this entry »
BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION, My focus last week was the surge in US production of natural gas by hydrofracturing and the prospects for the rest of the world. The supply/demand balance and resources aren’t the same worldwide, so the US mix won’t be the same elsewhere. However, STENDRA without a prescription, the prospects for new fossil-energy hydrocarbon resources raise questions about what attention will be paid to sustainability.
Other mixes: Poland, STENDRA online cod, Ukraine, Russia, Middle East, China, STENDRA maximum dosage, Germany, Japan
Shale gas isn’t necessarily an option for all countries, Buy STENDRA online cod, but it will likely be important where possible. Poland and Ukraine hope to benefit and are the targets of exploration, but the outcome is uncertain, STENDRA price. Russia and Middle Eastern countries presently have ample oil and gas and are major exporters, BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION. China is a prospect for large shale-gas resources, but what it has for sure is coal – and far less oil than it needs. STENDRA reviews, Some countries are relying on nuclear-generated electricity. Others, like Germany and Japan, are renouncing nuclear power after the Fukushima Daiichi disaster and will be more dependent on fossil fuel.
But wait – there’s more – in North Dakota, STENDRA long term, Brazil, and Canada…
Shale gas isn’t the only “unconventional resource” having an impact. Consider North Dakotan shale oil, Canadian oil sands, STENDRA gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, and Brazilian pre-salt oil. BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION, Along with other new resources, we may be moving to an oil glut, much to the world’s surprise.
North Dakota passed California as the third biggest oil-producing state in the US, STENDRA from mexico, according to Reuters last March. As for shale gas, the keys were improved horizontal drilling and fracking technologies that have doubled its production since 2009.
Oil sands in Alberta are an enormous crude-oil resource, rx free STENDRA, third as a proven reserve after those of Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. By 2010, STENDRA for sale, it had reached 7% of the oil demand of the US, transforming Alberta’s economy. The University of Alberta’s Suzanne Kresta, an oil-sands researcher and past president of AIChE’s North American Mixing Forum, says, “Oil sands require large-scale solutions – solutions to extraction, upgrading of heavy oils to refinery-ready feeds, minimizing water use and tailings production, and massive land reclamation to return the boreal forest to its original state, BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION. Chemical engineers are actively engaged in finding solutions to all of these challenges."
Brazil’s discoveries of vast, very deep, taking STENDRA, offshore oil and gas in the pre-salt formation since 2007 have positioned the country to be one of the world’s top energy producers. By government, STENDRA steet value, these operations must be run by Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras), a partly government-run, partly publicly owned company that is led by chemical engineer and CEO Maria das Graças Silva Foster, is STENDRA addictive, a veteran of the offshore drilling business.
So what happened to coal?
We’ve seen worldwide shifts in attention to energy before. Online buying STENDRA, When OPEC tightened up on oil in 1973, the whole world got serious about coal conversion to liquids. BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION, When oil prices dropped in the mid-1980s, so did work on coal conversion.
Now, cheap, real brand STENDRA online, clean natural gas has quickly shifted US electricity generation away from direct coal combustion. Last month, Fast shipping STENDRA, the Wall Street Journal reported that current gas prices yield electricity at half the price from coal in many plants. Coal is a rock and contains mineral matter – dirt. – and it or its products have to be cleaned up. Natural gas requires some cleanup, too, but that’s much easier, BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION.
CO2 production per unit of energy is lower from gas, STENDRA overnight, too. If you accept that CO2 generation is affecting climate change, Effects of STENDRA, then that’s good. However, burning gas still generates CO2 – and it is still a finite resource.
Let’s use the opportunity
We know there are great challenges, purchase STENDRA. BUY STENDRA NO PRESCRIPTION, Using fossil oil and gas is ultimately not sustainable because these resources are finite. As we burn abundant fuels, CO2 release is still a concern. Purchase STENDRA for sale, As the Deepwater Horizon accident showed, production holds added dangers when the resources are deep underground and underwater. As the plains of Alberta and the mountaintops of Appalachia show, surface mining carves away the land, STENDRA mg.
However, our lives can all benefit from the abundant energy resources that are crucial to have healthy, Online buying STENDRA hcl, growing economies worldwide. The present changes can buy time for ChEs to lead the way toward sustainable fuels.
It is a bright time for ChEs, both in our new areas and as classically strong areas like energy are transformed, STENDRA from canadian pharmacy. Our skills and insights are important for the world’s benefitting from such new resources in the long term.
Next week: Biology and ChE: Applying a molecular science.
Images: Maria das Graças Silva Foster, Petrobras; Suzanne Kresta, Jason Franson
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One of the biggest changes is the surge in production of natural gas by hydrofracturing. “Fracking” has dropped gas prices dramatically, No prescription AVODART online, altering US energy, organic-chemicals, and polymers businesses and foreshadowing changes throughout the world.
A US shale-gas boom
Hydrofracturing is more than sixty years old, AVODART steet value, but during the last four years, it has taken off in the gas-rich Marcellus shale formations in the northeastern US.
The idea of fracking is to drill horizontally for some distance within deep formations, apply hydraulic overpressure to open small fractures in close-by areas, online buying AVODART, prop them open with sand particles, and then release the hydraulic pressure so that trapped natural gas can escape and be produced. The pressurizing water and added chemicals (like guar gel, anti-corrosives, rheology enhancers) also come back out and must be treated. More details can be found in an AIChE webinar on the subject, BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION. Kjøpe AVODART på nett, köpa AVODART online, [caption id="attachment_52111" align="alignright" width="166" caption="Emil Jacobs"][/caption]
Emil Jacobs, VP of R&D for ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, contends, “The game-changing innovation that enabled the new era of natural gas in America was the combination of advancements in technology, online buying AVODART hcl, such as hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, AVODART brand name, Multi-Zone Stimulation, and others. This breakthrough combination enabled us to extract natural gas trapped in low-permeability rock safely and economically. Shale gas production scarcely existed 10 years ago and it now supports more than a million American jobs and generates billions of dollars in revenues and taxes – at a time when our economy really needs it.”
International energy implications
These approaches and impacts are being watched around the world, discount AVODART. The opportunities occur worldwide, as shown in a powerful graphic in Power magazine. BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION, Such “unconventional” natural-gas resources have become accessible around the world after a long period in which they seemed too expensive to recover.
A lot of new resources, order AVODART from mexican pharmacy, arriving surprisingly suddenly. Because gas demand hasn’t increased as rapidly as supply, AVODART for sale, US prices for gas have dropped. The Financial Times reported (7/26/2012) that lower gas prices had reduced 2nd-quarter 2012 earnings for gas producers Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil. However, Fast shipping AVODART, revenue and earnings remain sound, and consumers are happy to have cheap, clean natural gas.
At the same time, there is caution and outright opposition, mainly because of the potential for adverse environmental impacts, BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION. For example, buy cheap AVODART, neither use nor research on fracking is presently acceptable in France. At the same time, Ordering AVODART online, Hervé Toulhoat, Deputy Scientific Director at IFP Energies Nouvelles, is “struck by the large amounts of unconventional gas and oil discovered” and links this to possible occurrences of natural hydrogen. He acknowledges that economic pressures in Europe may well drive continued re-examination of the ban on fracking approaches, AVODART alternatives.
Impacts on US chemical manufacturing
The organic-chemical business is also happy to put this resource to good use. BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION, Suddenly the US olefins business is shifting to make these workhorse chemicals from ethane, propane, and natural-gas liquids rather than naphtha, returning to the long-time ideal feedstocks used in the US. At the same time, AVODART online cod, heavier naphtha byproducts are reduced, affecting those markets.
In a speech before his colleagues in the National Academy of Engineering last week, Bill Banholzer, Executive VP and Chief Technology Officer at Dow Chemical, AVODART recreational, said, “We have all seen monitors showing the rhythm of a beating heart on TV, Buy AVODART from mexico, and we know that when the line goes flat, it is a bad thing. The chemical industry experienced a flat line of sorts when natural-gas supplies dwindled, reducing our access to preferred natural-gas-liquid feeds and driving up prices, is AVODART addictive. Exports dwindled, and all reports were that no new chemical plants would ever be built in the U.S.”
Shale gas has changed all that. As Bill put it, “Abundant natural-gas supplies invigorate many parts of the economy, but potentially nowhere more significantly than in the chemical industry, BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION. AVODART trusted pharmacy reviews, We serve as a great multiplier of the value that abundant gas brings. We create jobs and materials used throughout the economy, amplifying the benefit of the low-cost gas reserves.”
Bill marveled, “Given the long time frames involved in energy, cheap AVODART, it is truly remarkable the impact shale gas has had. The ability of the US to export again will be a source of jobs and prosperity.”
Emil Jacobs’ thoughts closely echoed Bill’s: “The increased natural gas supply is reinvigorating America’s petrochemical industry, AVODART reviews, which will help us develop advanced plastics and high-value consumer goods. U.S. ethane production has risen by 25 percent over the last five years, providing a feedstock cost advantage that has led to a rise in US exports as well as incremental investment in ethane cracking.”
New opportunities, new challenges
Emil summed up his views by saying, “These are very exciting times that should drive us to consider how we are developing the next generation of chemical engineers with the necessary expertise to contribute to these advances and take advantage of these opportunities.”
These changes present both new opportunities and new challenges. In next week’s post, I’ll comment about the effect on the worldwide energy picture, the environment, and development of sustainable energy resources.
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ZYRTEC FOR SALE, Last week, I observed that ChE-style manufacturing often doesn’t fit the popular view of manufacturing, which is more mechanically than process-focused. An example is the way ChEs are deeply involved in tissue engineering, Where can i find ZYRTEC online, aiming to turn regenerative medicine into what I’d call “tissue manufacturing.”
Potentially a new biotechnology
[caption id="attachment_51947" align="alignright" width="122" caption="Cathryn Sundback"][/caption]
A few weeks ago, the Associated Press ran a story “Surprising Methods Heal Wounded Troops.” One of those methods was tissue engineering of prosthetic ears at Massachusetts General Hospital, online ZYRTEC without a prescription, featuring chemical engineer Cathryn Sundback, co-director of the Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Organ Fabrication. (Interestingly, fast shipping ZYRTEC, she got her ChE start working on topics like coal combustion and supercritical-fluid processing.)
More recently, Buy ZYRTEC online cod, the Wall Street Journal told how 3-D bioprinting is beginning to yield blood vessels, bone, and other tissue for eventual surgical implanting, ZYRTEC gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. (You can view a video report here.) One of the interviewees for the article and video was Keith Murphy, a ChE and the CEO of Organovo Inc., buy ZYRTEC without a prescription, the first producer of commercial bioprinters. ZYRTEC dose, That article finishes on the subject of making knee cartilage.
Making bone, cartilage, and ligaments for knees and shoulders is a particular interest of Cato Laurencin, a ChE professor who is also an orthopedic surgeon and former Dean of the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, ZYRTEC FOR SALE. These approaches are now making their way into clinical use. (Learn more about his work in this video.)
Why are ChEs involved?
Bob Langer of MIT, one of the most highly recognized chemical engineers in the world, has been a pioneer in this field and a mentor to many of the ChEs in it, ZYRTEC online cod. (You can watch an interview with Langer here.) One key was using polymers to make biocompatible materials, including tissue scaffolds, ZYRTEC street price, or frameworks for the growth of new tissues. ZYRTEC for sale,
However, his deeper insight was seeing how chemical-engineering principles and materials science lend themselves naturally to such advances in medicine. ZYRTEC FOR SALE, This insight was nurtured in his ChE doctoral research on enzymatic regeneration of ATP, directed at MIT by Clark Colton. In turn, doses ZYRTEC work, Clark had been introduced to ChE biomedical applications through his doctoral research on mass transfer and hemodialysis under ChE professor Ed Merrill. Rx free ZYRTEC,
All this may seem natural now, but Bob recalls how counterintuitive it was in 1974 when he chose postdoctoral research with Dr. Judah Folkman, ZYRTEC wiki, a physician and medical scientist who was founder of the angiogenesis-research field. ZYRTEC reviews, He remarked, “Most people thought I was crazy professionally, and granting agencies couldn’t see that any of my work should be funded, ordering ZYRTEC online. However, my colleagues and I pressed on, made discoveries, won patents, and developed companies and students who, I like to think, have transformed the field.”
The world seems to agree, ZYRTEC FOR SALE. Bob has published 1100+ papers, ZYRTEC maximum dosage, won 800+ patents, helped start 17 companies, is a member of all three US national academies, comprar en línea ZYRTEC, comprar ZYRTEC baratos, and has won National Medal of Science, No prescription ZYRTEC online, Millennium Award, Perkin Medal, Priestley Medal, buy generic ZYRTEC, and the Draper Prize among many others. ZYRTEC mg, Again, he speaks eloquently of his foundation in chemical engineering.
Also, it’s an applied molecular science
Another factor is that since the advent of the Human Genome Project in the 1990s, biology has become a molecular science.
Traditionally, the distinctive expertise of ChEs has been to apply chemistry, aided by math and physics. If chemistry and biology and materials science can now be lumped together as molecular sciences, then one way to describe chemical engineering is “applied molecular science.”
Applied biology has long been part of chemical engineering, but these changes make it clearer than ever why that is so (more on that later).
Next week: Changes in hydrocarbon resources.
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