Author: Phil Westmoreland

About the Author

Phil Westmoreland

Name: Phil Westmoreland

Bio: Phillip R. Westmoreland is Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU) and Executive Director of the NCSU Institute for Computational Science and Engineering. His chemical engineering degrees are from NCSU (BS, 1973), Louisiana State Univ. (MS, 1974), and MIT (PhD, 1986). He worked in coal research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1974–1979), as a ChE faculty member at the Univ. of Massachusetts Amherst (1986–2009), and as a program director at the National Science Foundation (2006–2009). An AIChE Fellow, Phil began service as public relations chair and secretary in the Knoxville-Oak Ridge Section. He was Chair of the Central New England Section, founding Chair of the Computational Molecular Science and Engineering Forum (CoMSEF), and Chair of the National Program Committee, and has served on the Boards of Directors of AIChE, the forums CoMSEF and NSEF, the Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Div., the Combustion Institute, and the Council for Chemical Research. He is also a trustee and past president of the educational nonprofit CACHE Corp.

December 5th, 2013


By Phil Westmoreland
new materials

new materials

Many of you are already aware of the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) FLOXIN FOR SALE, . It was initiated by the U.S. FLOXIN coupon, Government in June 2011 to increase US global competitiveness through accelerating the pace at which new materials are discovered, developed, FLOXIN no rx, FLOXIN dangers, and transitioned into manufactured products.  DOE, buy FLOXIN online cod, Buy no prescription FLOXIN online, NIST, NSF, FLOXIN without prescription, Where can i cheapest FLOXIN online, and DoD are funding or planning to fund MGI research.

In Gaithersburg MD on November 19-20, no prescription FLOXIN online, FLOXIN for sale, 2013, the MGI conducted a Grand Challenges Summit: Soft Materials, meant to identify the key challenges and opportunities where the MGI should focus its efforts. I was pleased to be at the workshop both as AIChE President and because an initiative I started and led when I was at NSF was a key ingredient in the MGI's creation, FLOXIN price. Where can i order FLOXIN without prescription,

Upcoming webinars

Next Monday and Tuesday, NIST is hosting four webinar workshops to report on the Summit and to solicit feedback from interested parties, herbal FLOXIN. The Summit had break-out sessions on four materials technology areas, and there will be a webinar for each, FLOXIN FOR SALE. FLOXIN brand name, The anticipated format is 20 minutes for the break-out chairs to report the findings of the Summit, followed by a 25-minute feedback session where webinar attendees can offer comments and ask questions, FLOXIN recreational. FLOXIN samples, This is your chance to hear and influence the goals of the MGI-funded research programs on soft matter. Please consider participating, buy FLOXIN from mexico, FLOXIN overnight, and let other interested parties know, too. The webinars are:

Biomaterials: [Updated Time/Day] Monday, online buying FLOXIN, About FLOXIN, January 6, 2014 from 11:30 AM to 12:15 PM EST
Samuel Stupp, generic FLOXIN, Buy FLOXIN online no prescription, Northwestern University
Board of Trustees Professor of Materials Science, Chemistry, FLOXIN no prescription, FLOXIN trusted pharmacy reviews, & Medicine
Director, Institute for BioNanotechnology in Medicine
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Composite Materials: Tuesday, Dec 10, 2013 from 9:00-9:45 AM EST
Byron Pipes, Purdue University
John Leighton Bray Distinguished Professor of Engineering
Department of Materials Engineering
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Organic Electronics: Tuesday, Dec 10, 2013 from 10:00-10:45 AM EST
Howard Katz, Johns Hopkins University
Chair and Professor, Materials Science and Engineering
Register here

Polymers: Tuesday, Dec 10, 2013 from 11:00-11:45 AM EST
Juan de Pablo, University of Chicago
Liew Family Professor in Molecular Engineering
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All webinars will be archived and viewable, as they become available.

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December 4th, 2013


By Phil Westmoreland
Alanna "Lane" Daley

PAXIL FOR SALE, Making the transition from ChE student to ChE professional means entering a new phase of education. Some is from books or continuing-education courses, but a lot is from colleagues and on-the-job experience. This series listens to recent hires and their mentors from different jobs, industries, PAXIL interactions, and locations. They'll tell us what they've found they had to learn.

[caption id="attachment_71661" align="alignleft" width="288" caption="Josh Keller and Lane Daley of Eastman Chemical"][/caption]

Alanna “Lane” Daley has just finished her second year of work at Eastman Chemical, What is PAXIL, the seventh largest chemical company in the United States. She is a process improvement engineer working in separations. I had the pleasure of teaching her separations and mass transfer class when she was an undergraduate at North Carolina State, and she has had to learn a lot more than I taught her, PAXIL FOR SALE.

That is as it should be. Courses provide valuable skills, but more importantly, buy cheap PAXIL, they provide the foundation for learning the many more details needed for the job.

In the classroom, we cover distillation of ideal and nonideal mixtures, Purchase PAXIL online no prescription, absorption/stripping, extraction, membrane separations, and adsorption, plus fundamentals of steady-state and unsteady-state mass transfer – pretty typical for a one-semester course in the subject, australia, uk, us, usa. Students come out with solid skills, but maybe only a few out of her class of 115 will work directly with distillation, and some more will work indirectly with it. PAXIL FOR SALE, The same goes for most other specific processes, and some will eventually work with separation processes that don’t exist yet. Buy PAXIL online no prescription, Let Lane tell about her experience:

Initially, I supported specialty solvent production. In that role, I spent 30-40% of my time on technical assistance, i.e., taking PAXIL, troubleshooting operational instabilities and executing reliability projects. However, the majority of my time was spent developing long-term improvement projects to increase production or decrease cost. Herbal PAXIL, Recently, I’ve been reassigned to acetic anhydride production, still in a process-improvement role and spending almost all of my time on medium-to-long-term improvement projects.

My degree supplied me with the tools I needed to learn engineering “on the job.” There have been so many learning opportunities in my job that I struggle to pull out the key components, PAXIL FOR SALE.

What has probably proved most useful in my job is a better understanding of practical separation methods. I have been fortunate enough to retain experience with complicated solvent chemistry involving liquid-liquid equilibriums and numerous azeotropes as well as extractive and reactive distillation, PAXIL price. I’ve also had the pleasure of working with decanters, centrifuges, reactors of all sorts, PAXIL forum, high-pressure pumps, and various types of vacuum systems (just to name a few!). Troubleshooting opportunities and internal inspections on columns have taught me many of the intricacies regarding distillation in practice. PAXIL FOR SALE, Because most of my experience is with solvent production, I have found a better understanding of distillation to be the most use to me.

Using reactive distillation making acetyl chemicals has been a key process development by Eastman Chemical. It makes use of synthesis gas from coal gasification, a distinctive capability in the United States, PAXIL results, and it can also be of use for the growing international interest using natural gas in gas-to-liquids technologies.

For an additional perspective, I contacted Josh Keller, PAXIL pictures, Lane’s mentor. He is a 2005 BSChE from Georgia Tech. Before coming to Eastman eight years ago, he had co-oped at Konica Minolta in Whitsett, NC, PAXIL wiki, and Georgia Pacific in Brunswick, GA. At Eastman, he has worked in various process improvement roles and manufacturing support roles and is currently a staff engineer supporting specialty solvent manufacturing, PAXIL FOR SALE. He provides day-to-day technical support, Buy cheap PAXIL no rx, capital project management, and environmental compliance support. He reflects:

As both a fairly new chemical engineer (<10yrs experience) and a mentor of recent college engineering graduates, there are a few gaps between what is taught in college and what is required as a chemical engineer supporting a manufacturing facility. One of the biggest issues that my mentee expressed, online PAXIL without a prescription, and that I experienced as well, was a lack of practical knowledge about equipment design. For example, Where can i find PAXIL online, what is the difference between a globe valve and a ball valve. PAXIL FOR SALE, Why would you use one versus the other. The same can be said about instrumentation, pumps, distillation columns and heat exchangers. There are numerous subtle design choices that can significantly affect the safety, PAXIL use, operability, reliability, and cost of a project that often require the guidance of a senior engineer as the new hire completes their first project. PAXIL gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, The area that my mentee and I supported has process shutdowns to clean a distillation column. For a new hire, shutdowns are great learning experience. They allow an inside look at equipment whose functioning can be hard to comprehend, PAXIL FOR SALE. Explaining how a multi-pass shell and tube heat exchanger works is easier when you can look at both the tube sheet and the bonnet, and see how the fluid passes through one section of tubes to the next, PAXIL dangers. It also allows for opportunities to ask (or answer if you have an inquisitive mentee) questions like “Which process should go on the tube side, and why?” Being able to see and touch a piece of equipment provides a tangible learning experience that is able to reinforce the theory learned in school.

[caption id="attachment_71683" align="aligncenter" width="460" caption="Eastman Chemical Company in Kingsport, Tennessee, PAXIL description, looking up the Tennessee River with its coal-gasification facility on the right."][/caption]

Beyond learning new technical skills

Josh also offered his thoughts about the need to develop good communication skills. Despite the many presentation and writing opportunities in school, these skills have to be augmented with greater understanding of people and how to provide the information they need. Josh said:
Another area where I see new engineers struggle is communication. PAXIL FOR SALE, I have heard too many stories from operators about new engineers who tried to tell them how they should operate a piece of equipment. During graduation, PAXIL mg, we are lauded for this great accomplishment we have just completed, that we have the opportunity to go out into the world and make it a better place. We leave college with a great sense of pride and ambition. Buy PAXIL without a prescription, This can often lead a new hire to be overly confident in their knowledge and ability. This overconfidence can sometimes come across as arrogance, which can severely hinder a new engineer, as people will become less receptive to their ideas.

Effective communication plays a vital part in an engineer’s ability to be successful, PAXIL FOR SALE. A new engineer has to learn how to sell their ideas to both management and operations, PAXIL street price. Being able to do both effectively is more difficult than most perceive it to be. While mentoring, it is good to observe the mentee’s interactions with others early, PAXIL australia, uk, us, usa, as it does not take long to make a poor first impression.

A few years ago I had the opportunity to take a class related to understanding my own communication style and how to recognize the communication style of those around me. PAXIL FOR SALE, This class did a good job explaining how to tailor your communication to your audience. The key insight was that everyone values different information and presentation styles. This is especially helpful when presenting information to different levels of management.

Lane is off to a great start professionally, on the job and off, purchase PAXIL online. She is an AIChE Young Professional member, Society of Biological Engineering member, and is vice chair of the East Tennessee Local Section.

What are your experiences with learning on the job?

Images: Portrait, Alanna Daley; Chemicals from Coal Facility, American Chemical Society (ACS); Eastman plant, Eastman Chemical

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November 21st, 2013


By Phil Westmoreland
Bart Vermeer and Mariam Al-Meer

BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION, Making the transition from ChE student to ChE professional means entering a new phase of education. Some is from books or continuing-education courses, but a lot is from colleagues and on-the-job experience. This series listens to recent hires and their mentors from different jobs, industries, IMDUR price, coupon, and locations. They’ll tell us what they’ve found they had to learn.

Mariam Al-Meer is with Shell at its Pearl gas-to-liquids plant on the Persian Gulf in northern Qatar. Shell is a leader in converting gas to a wide range of products through Fischer-Tropsch technologies. The Pearl facility, a joint development by Qatar Petroleum and Shell, is the largest GTL plant in the world, BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION. It is expected to process about three billion barrels-of-oil-equivalent over its lifetime from a gas field that has been estimated to contain about 15% of the worldwide gas resources.

Mariam is in her second year of work there following her B.S, cheap IMDUR no rx. ChE degree from Texas A&M at Qatar. While a student officer in the AIChE Student Chapter, she participated in the 2010 AIChE Annual Student Conference at Salt Lake City, Utah. BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION, For her first two to three years at Shell, she is in a rotation of jobs and formal mentoring through the Shell Graduate Programme (SGP), a common approach to getting started used by large companies. Buy IMDUR without a prescription, Her present “technical coach” is Bart Vermeer, senior GTL technologist with Shell.

[caption id="attachment_71702" align="alignright" width="470" caption="Bart Vermeer and Mariam Al-Meer"]Bart Vermeer and Mariam Al-Meer[/caption]

In her first year, she has had diverse experiences, including monitoring and troubleshooting, alarm reviews and management, IMDUR overnight, involvement in HAZOPs and process safety reviews, and carrying out mass balances over the area.

Here, Mariam reflects on skills and expertise she needed or had to learn that went beyond what she had as a student:

The main skills I had to learn revolved around operation of units. Ordering IMDUR online, Taking distillation as an example, university introduced me to the design of distillation columns. At Pearl, I had to learn how column performance is monitored and how to optimize such performance while taking its impact on downstream units into consideration at all times, BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION.

I also had to learn how process safety is managed on site. HAZOPs are carried out by multi-disciplined teams working together and brainstorming to identify and assess hazards, examining certain sections of a plant in depth, so one can only fully learn the methods and techniques used in such studies by sitting through them, IMDUR for sale.

I remember having to put together a process and instrumentation diagram as part of the chemical engineering senior design project prior to graduation. That was a good introduction to P&IDs, but I had to learn a lot more at work with regards to their interpretation. BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION, As an example, interaction with process control engineers is part of a technologist’s role. Consequently, Buy IMDUR from canada, I had to learn how to read P&IDs and understand the controls described on them.

Mariam also found herself needing to learn about using statistics:
I could have taken a course on statistics as an elective at university, but I took other courses. While tracking certain events on site (e.g., flaring), I needed to use normal distributions as part of tracking performance, so I also had to learn some statistical methods.

In common with many new hires, IMDUR street price, she found new appreciation of the role of communication skills:
Being able to communicate well and to pass on a message in a concise yet clear way is important. In process technology, there is a lot of interaction with departments such as process control, maintenance, Order IMDUR online c.o.d, and operations. I have had to sharpen my communication skills through work. Feedback on e-mails and reports I write has helped me learn where I need to improve.

[caption id="attachment_71705" align="aligncenter" width="470" caption="Pearl GTL, a gas-to-liquids plant on the Persian Gulf in northern Qatar"]Shell facility[/caption]

Perspectives of Mariam’s technical coach

Bart Vermeer came to Qatar in 2011 and now is primarily responsible for the actual Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquids reactors and associated units, BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION. He was originally from the Caribbean (Curaçao), but his Dutch parents returned with him to The Netherlands when he was young. He studied at TU Delft, Netherlands, kjøpe IMDUR på nett, köpa IMDUR online, earning his BSc '05 & MSc '06 in chemical engineering. Coming out of school, he began work at Shell Technology Centre Amsterdam (STCA) as a gas conversion technologist, doing process/catalyst/ reactor development as well as operational- and equipment engineering/construction support. Buy IMDUR online cod, He reflected on Mariam’s experience in particular and his own observations in general:
With Mariam fresh out of university, it was very clear that she came prepared with a diverse and comprehensive skillset combined with a solid foundation in chemical engineering principles. BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION, However, as for any graduate entering an operational environment, it is to a very large extent the practical side of chemical engineering where the greatest challenges and (initial) development needs lie.

As a Process Technologist, Mariam is responsible for plant units that require both day-to-day attention – optimization, ensuring stability, reliability and operability – as well as study for mid- and long-term improvement, IMDUR samples. Especially the first area (short-term troubleshooting and operation) is one where in the first year(s) of having an operational role the steepest learning curve lies; so also for Mariam.

Graduates taking up these types of positions typically have strong conceptual, scientific, and theoretical backgrounds. IMDUR schedule, Many skills that come into play are normally not addressed in-depth within university curricula but are better developed by dedicated courses and actual experience in the workplace. Some examples are:

  • Process hardware, BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION. Major equipment items like columns, vessels, and reactors have the highest visibility in university studies, but new employees must learn details about many specialized items like control valves, line tracing, IMDUR no rx, instruments, strainers, steam traps, gaskets, Buy IMDUR online no prescription, sampling stations, and so on. For each, a whole spectrum of different technologies and configurations is available, tailored towards the specific services. Engineers from other disciplines have dedicated roles at a typical site, buy no prescription IMDUR online, but a chemical engineering technologist is expected to be able to integrate all these aspects into a full process understanding.

  • Process safety and safeguarding – not just an attitude of safeness but also the assessment and decision processes, hardware and equipment design issues (relief valves, instrumentation configuration, material selection), Order IMDUR from mexican pharmacy, and the safety-management systems. This is one field that could and should receive more attention in universities.

  • Personal safety in a processing environment. BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION, There are ever-present risks that need to be managed when working in a process environment, such as extremely high or low pressures and temperatures, toxic and highly acidic/alkaline components, flammable and/or explosive compounds, high-noise areas, and working at height. Care goes beyond process and plant design and operation, but it extends to personal protective equipment, permitting systems, emergency response plans, IMDUR brand name, gas monitoring, awareness of MSDSs, and exposure limits, all supported again by safety-management systems.

  • Process dynamics. IMDUR forum, Although dynamic process simulators are available to study typical units, every actual process has very specific and often unique operating windows and nonlinear process sensitivities. Also, it is vital to understand the interplay among process-parameter changes, controller responses, actual process response and impacts on downstream and upstream equipment, comprar en línea IMDUR, comprar IMDUR baratos. Often it is management of the major non-steady state operating modes that is most important: start-ups, shut-downs, ramp-ups, slow-downs, Buy IMDUR without prescription, and trips.

Beyond learning new technical skills

Bart also emphasized the way that most new hires are surprised at the importance of communications and good work habits. He remarked:
Working in a process environment requires a dynamic work mentality all day, every day, BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION. Timeframes for addressing issues can differ from hours or less for troubleshooting up to months or years for big projects. Day-to-day prioritization and time management are keys, and directly translate into the role technologists play in the workplace. They need to switch between roles as project/investigation leader, engineer, doses IMDUR work, operations advisor, administrator, strategist and advising technical expert. Growing into this work style is challenging and is not for everyone, IMDUR dosage, but it is definitely one of the most satisfying aspects of becoming a process technologist.

Finally, Bart offered reassurances to Mariam and all new hires about the need to keep learning:
As you start working, recognize you have much to learn yet. BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION, Rest assured, this goes for everyone around you as well. No one ever stops learning professionally. This is certainly also recognized for new graduates – you are not expected to be immediate experts.

As such, is IMDUR safe, do not be afraid to ask questions. This is perfectly fine, well received and logically expected. You’d be surprised how eager colleagues are to share their experience, BUY IMDUR NO PRESCRIPTION. Benefit from the experience of colleagues at all levels. Online buying IMDUR hcl, The operator who has 20 years of experience will know the intricacies of process units you yourself will also be working on.

At the same time, you will find that senior management will also strongly support your further development.

Observations in conclusion

Mariam’s and Bart’s experiences show how well school prepared them – up to a point. For experienced chemical engineers, it isn’t surprising that many technical skills are learned after they get out of school, given that so many aspects are industry-specific or job-specific.

Also, this second phase of education isn’t just through more coursework, although sometimes targeted short courses or webinars can be just what is needed. As Bart emphasized, colleagues may be sources of advice or even tutorials. Whether those colleagues are above, below, or alongside you in the management hierarchy, they can teach you a lot, and you have an obligation to teach them what you know as well.

How do Mariam’s and Bart’s observations reflect your own experience?

Images: Portrait, Mariam Al-Meer; Pearl LTG facility, Shell

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October 23rd, 2013


By Phil Westmoreland

TAFIL-XANOR FOR SALE, What you learn in a ChE degree program is powerful – but once we start work, every chemical engineer finds out they need to learn even more. It’s independent of what degree you received, TAFIL-XANOR from mexico, what kind of job you take, or what area you specialize in. New process engineers face it, TAFIL-XANOR australia, uk, us, usa. New faculty face it. Where can i find TAFIL-XANOR online, New ChEs in tech service face it, and so on.

An important part of the learning is having your eyes opened by experience, TAFIL-XANOR FOR SALE. How different valves are different, TAFIL-XANOR photos. The importance of good writing and concise, Purchase TAFIL-XANOR online, audience-appropriate communication. How to work with staff and craftspeople. Pre-graduation experience can help with that, buy TAFIL-XANOR without prescription, whether it is a co-op or a post-doctoral position or a summer job. TAFIL-XANOR FOR SALE, More formal instruction and guidance is required for other aspects. My TAFIL-XANOR experience, When you have a work task to accomplish, your self-study of school texts or reference materials takes on a new dimension. You probably have or had a mentor, where to buy TAFIL-XANOR, formally assigned, TAFIL-XANOR dose, informally adopted, or simply seen as a role model. Short courses may be called for, taking TAFIL-XANOR, in-house or offsite or on the web. What is TAFIL-XANOR, Many BSChEs decide to get MBAs, while some will seek law, medical, TAFIL-XANOR cost, or other degrees.

What is the factor in common, TAFIL-XANOR FOR SALE. Online buy TAFIL-XANOR without a prescription, Nurturing your skills, talent, and expertise to go beyond what you’ve learned already: “Lifelong learning.”

Why is a BS, TAFIL-XANOR steet value, MS, TAFIL-XANOR canada, mexico, india, or PhD not enough?

ChE is far too broad for any undergrad or graduate program to be able teach everything a new professional needs. There are so many different industries and fields. The BSChE covers a number of valuable, TAFIL-XANOR maximum dosage, explicit skills with a lot more powerful concepts to build on. TAFIL-XANOR without a prescription, In MS or PhD research, you achieve much greater depth and insight into your chosen project and its field, yet inevitably you will need to broaden and deepen your knowledge as your career progresses, purchase TAFIL-XANOR online no prescription.

TAFIL-XANOR FOR SALE, For example, schools can only teach the basics of a few separation processes. You have to learn a lot more detail and nuance to work with those processes. Discount TAFIL-XANOR, If you work with a separation process that wasn't covered – or didn’t exist then – you have to learn about it using what concepts and analogous methods you learned before. In addition to ChE technical aspects, other areas where ChEs often require a step change in sophistication include safety, online TAFIL-XANOR without a prescription, communications, TAFIL-XANOR gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, and budgets/accounting.

Hear it from new professionals

In this series, you’ll hear from a number of new ChE professionals, TAFIL-XANOR duration, each about one to two years past graduation. They’ll describe the type of work and responsibilities they've had in their work to date, as well as the skills or expertise they needed or had to learn that go beyond what they learned as students, TAFIL-XANOR FOR SALE. TAFIL-XANOR mg, You’ll also hear from their mentor or a senior person offering their perspective on the skills or expertise that new professionals must learn.

Some of the people you’ll hear from include Lane Daley at Eastman Chemical, who is working with reactive distillation; Mariam al-Meer of Shell Qatar, buying TAFIL-XANOR online over the counter, who works with the Pearl Gas-to-Liquids process; Jon Haughton of Ingredion, TAFIL-XANOR brand name, a food ingredients company where he works as a product manager/marketer; and biotechnologists, fab engineers, new faculty, astronauts, attorneys, physicians, and people working in government.

If you are a ChE student or new employee, you will see topics that you’ll need, as well as important ideas – and also that you aren’t alone in this need to learn.

You’ll also enjoy seeing the professional breadth and accomplishments of chemical engineers and chemical engineering. We tend to see what people around us are doing, but we take a remarkable diversity of professional directions.

What skills did you have to earn that you didn’t learn in school?



Read the rest of this entry »
December 20th, 2012


By Phil Westmoreland

This series has been based on the five reasons that are shaping our entrance into a Golden Age of ChE:

  • Manufacturing’s shift to emphasize processes and properties

  • New abundance of hydrocarbon resources in the US

  • Biology’s turning into a molecular science

  • NORVASC FOR SALE, Computing, evolved into a cyberinfrastructure

  • ChEs’ breadth and problem-solving approaches

I conclude by identifying three ways we can seize the future and shape our profession:

  • Asserting leadership in the new face of manufacturing

  • Incorporating information management and analytics

  • Embracing our profession’s breadth

ChEs can take on a leadership role in manufacturing

Chemical engineers and AIChE can both promote our role in manufacturing and take a leading role in reshaping its modern form. The public, economists, and governments think of manufacturing as durable goods like cars or washing machines or aircraft built on assembly lines.

We think of our industries as “processing,” but in a true sense, we are “manufacturing” fuels and pharmaceuticals and polymers and consumer products with useful and valuable properties, comprar en línea NORVASC, comprar NORVASC baratos. It is up to us to recognize our work as manufacturing and to communicate better to the world that “ChEs make our world.”

[caption id="attachment_57311" align="alignleft" width="117" caption="Jim Wei"][/caption]

Manufacturing and manufacturing jobs are changing in general toward higher productivity: higher production with fewer people. Jim Wei, NORVASC coupon, 1988 AIChE President and Emeritus Dean of Engineering at Princeton, has pointed out an interesting trend in the chronology of jobs in the US and the world. Since 1810, the percentage of US labor in agriculture has declined steadily to a fairly steady few percent as fewer people produce more products.By contrast, online NORVASC without a prescription, the percentage of jobs in the US in industry grew steadily toward a maximum near 35% in 1965. Since then, it has dropped to about 20% or less, NORVASC FOR SALE. As in agriculture, Buying NORVASC online over the counter, we see that industry has shifted toward high productivity. Remarkably, when Wei plotted world job distributions, he found that countries at different stages of development generally fall along the same trend lines that characterized the different balances in the US over time, buy NORVASC without a prescription.

ChE has always been a leader in such high-productivity manufacturing. ChE’s leadership has been because of its focus on processing rather than high-labor assembly. NORVASC FOR SALE, Assembly is gaining productivity in part because of robotics, but it is using more and more processing. Buy NORVASC without prescription, Think of the shift from vacuum tubes inserted into circuit boards to multifunctional solid-state chips made by chemical processing.

Information management and analytics are keys, along with cyberinfrastructure

Computer process control, data acquisition, cheap NORVASC, and process design have further advanced ChE productivity. They haven’t caused the same loss of jobs that assembly-based manufacturing has seen. Canada, mexico, india, Data abundance creates new challenges for us, along with new opportunities. We are about to see an explosion in small, cheap sensors for temperature, pressure, composition, and detection of emissions, NORVASC FOR SALE. Video monitoring provides lots of bytes to be digested while monitoring processes and security. Logging data from the engines on a single transatlantic flight generates 640 terabytes; the full human genome has six billion base pairs with a vast number of variations, NORVASC alternatives.

Our challenge is learning new ways to manage data and extract information from it. ChEs will need to acquire new skills in analytics and business intelligence. As I discussed in an earlier post, Effects of NORVASC, “analytics” is commonly used to describe statistics-based extraction of insights from large data sets or “Big Data.” Presently, most ChEs have some experience with statistics, but these big, multivariable data sets call for new skills, NORVASC forum. NORVASC FOR SALE, Likewise, new high-performance computers use parallel architectures, whose speed depends on creating new solution algorithms. ChEs need to understand how these architectures work, including the sharing of memory, Get NORVASC, even if someone else is creating the code itself.

Consider a classical algorithm like McCabe-Thiele, made up of sequential steps. If you have hundreds of thousands of processors in parallel, cheap NORVASC no rx, you might run that many cases, mapping a solution surface for the variation of input parameters. Taking NORVASC, Another approach would be simultaneous solution of many positions throughout a process unit. Coupling such calculations through shared memory can slow them down severely, NORVASC FOR SALE. Use the architecture effectively, and speed-up is dramatic; use it unwisely, and it will be poor, buy NORVASC from canada.

Embrace the breadth of our profession

A third key is to embrace both the differences within the profession and the aspects that link us. In my previous post, I suggested that our defining similarities are applying molecular sciences and doing problem-solving from the systems perspective that we acquire beginning at the very start of our careers. Where to buy NORVASC, At the same time, our similarities can be hard to see because ChEs do so many different things and play so many different roles.

For example, I’ve recently heard strong opinions that the center of chemical engineering is energy and petrochemicals in Houston, NORVASC overnight, Texas. To be sure, Houston is a capital of chemical engineering -- a world capital of the energy and petrochemicals industries and an important center of biomedical ChE. At the same time, Buy NORVASC online cod, the Arabian peninsula, Rotterdam, and New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania/Delaware areas are a few of the other international centers of energy and petrochemicals. NORVASC FOR SALE, While it may be surprising, TX+LA and NY+NJ+PA+DE have almost identical numbers of AIChE professional members, 16% of the membership each.

Then there are different sectors of ChE as well, NORVASC mg. I hear fears from sectors like commodity chemicals that new emphases on biology are squeezing them out or diluting the profession. To me, NORVASC samples, it’s the opposite. Biology (which now is a molecular science) is bringing new markets, new products, new processes, buy NORVASC from mexico, and even new biomimetic approaches to expand our profession. Tissue engineering can be seen as ChE manufacturing of replacement body components, NORVASC FOR SALE.

Another divide is between academics and industrial ChEs. NORVASC maximum dosage, For people like me who have worked in both domains, these sides just have different focuses and roles. Both academic and industrial ChEs educate their colleagues and themselves. Both are part of the manufacturing enterprise, buy cheap NORVASC no rx, creating and producing the ideas, processes, Purchase NORVASC online, and products we use.

Entering the Golden Age

NORVASC FOR SALE, I believe a new Golden Age of Chemical Engineering will happen regardless of whether we consciously lead the new manufacturing or learn the new cyberinfrastructure. However, I don’t think we can achieve it unless we embrace the third aspect, a new, NORVASC description, broader view of our differences and commonalities – a vision of what chemical engineering is.

Grasping that vision will be easier if we see examples. In the next year, AIChE will continue to tell the stories of different chemical engineers in different roles, such as the recent feature on Sarah Widder, an environmental engineer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, or the interview with Terry Papoutsakis, biological engineer and Jay Bailey Awardee.

Through this broader, inclusive understanding of who we are, we can better tackle the needs and the quality of life, providing clean water, food, health, energy, shelter, security, a safe environment, and more. We can shape the future of chemical engineering and the world.

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December 14th, 2012


By Phil Westmoreland
World of chemical engineering

XANAX FOR SALE, In this next-to-last post of the series, I take up the fifth reason that I think we are entering a Golden Age of ChE: Our profession’s breadth, linked by common background and problem-solving approaches.

To keep our profession strong, we must understand and embrace both our core expertise and our breadth. Part of this breadth is working with our different branches and with other disciplines to achieve specific and broad goals of society, low dose XANAX. So, what is ChE and who is a ChE. Ordering XANAX online,

ChE is what a ChE does

[caption id="attachment_56630" align="alignright" width="132" caption="Bette Lawler"][/caption]

Bette Lawler, AIChE’s director of operations, tells me that when she calls about membership renewals, XANAX no prescription, she often hears the comment, “I’m not really doing chemical engineering anymore.” Most often, Comprar en línea XANAX, comprar XANAX baratos, that turns out to mean that they aren’t doing process engineering.

ChEs do many things in addition to process engineering, XANAX FOR SALE. To name a few areas, we also bring our skills to bear on R&D, management, order XANAX online overnight delivery no prescription, finance, business, XANAX alternatives, design, sales, technical service, testing, XANAX gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, human resources, education, Cheap XANAX no rx, law, medicine, governing, intelligence services, is XANAX addictive, and space flight.

Chemical engineering is not defined narrowly by the industries we work in, XANAX reviews, which are remarkably diverse. Oil, gas, and petrochemicals are key sectors for our profession, XANAX from canadian pharmacy, and the excitement about new opportunities there is high. At the same time, Buy cheap XANAX no rx, we have long records of achievement in pharma, polymers, food, nuclear energy, XANAX trusted pharmacy reviews, environmental control, paper, XANAX samples, and packaging. XANAX FOR SALE, ChEs are also taking leading roles in new areas as diverse as tissue engineering, personalized medicine, nanotechnology, petascale computing, sustainability metrics, and microfluidics.

Ask ChE students what their interests are. You’ll find a wide range. For example, XANAX for sale, at the AIChE Student Chapter of California State University – Long Beach, XANAX street price, students listed water, sustainable manufacturing, medicine, auto racing, XANAX dose, business, biofuels, Doses XANAX work, automated environmental-control systems, and microelectronics.

Our core (1): “Molecular science” is our foundation

The core distinction of a engineering disciplines is what branch of science it rests on.

[caption id="attachment_56637" align="alignleft" width="144" caption="Bob Armstrong"][/caption]

Ten years ago, Bob Armstrong of MIT led a broadly based effort of academics and industrial practitioners titled “Frontiers of Chemical Engineering Education,” aiming to develop a new framework for the undergraduate curriculum. One of their insights was that each engineering discipline has three aspects: Its core area of science, a systems approach to problem-solving, and their concepts and analytical connectors (see graphic), XANAX FOR SALE.

Chemistry is the core science of our profession. At the same time, real brand XANAX online, chemistry has broadened to encompass biology and materials so “molecular sciences” is a better description. From that point of view, Purchase XANAX for sale, a definition of chemical engineering is “the profession that applies molecular sciences.”

If you’re doing sales or chemical process control or patent law or tissue engineering, for example, does that definition fit. I think so, buy XANAX without a prescription. XANAX FOR SALE, Consider the contrasting time scales of ChE vs. electrical-engineering process control: seconds and minutes, vs. My XANAX experience, milliseconds and microseconds. Tissue engineering is using living cells, but we now understand that biochemical pathways are keys to their viability.

Physics and math and even social sciences of ChE all play vital roles, order XANAX no prescription, too. Each engineering discipline is centered on some domain of science, and applied molecular sciences is ours, XANAX FOR SALE.

Our core (2): We’re systems engineers – from the start

To tackle these problems or any problem, you first have to grasp what the problem is – what the system is. “Systems” is probably not how you were introduced to it, but ChEs’ initial tool of choice is often writing balances on a system in terms of amounts of material or money or flowrates or energy.

Think what a distinctive strength that is. We learn a systems approach from the start of our careers and then apply it to problem-solving and creative processes throughout our careers. XANAX FOR SALE, Other engineering disciplines have typically first learned the fundamentals and then put them together into systems by their senior undergraduate year. For ChEs, it’s always been ingrained from the start.

These two aspects shape ChE

The bridging tools in our technical toolkit include thermodynamics, kinetics, unit operations, and transport phenomena, and they make up much of the common education background ChEs have. ChE stretches beyond using those particular tools, though, and at some point in your work you may not use them at all.

Rather, I think that ChE is best characterized by (1) applying molecular sciences and (2) starting from a systems perspective. Regardless of whether your assignment is to develop a P&I diagram or supply-chain management or an environmental assessment or personalized medicine, these two features say you're a chemical engineer.

Next week, I’ll conclude this series by writing about the opportunities and challenges we face as we enter a new Golden Age of Chemical Engineering.

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December 5th, 2012


By Phil Westmoreland

In the last post BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION, , I focused on the remarkable advances in simulations and high-performance computing, including their impacts on ChE.

There is a whole other side to computing, though: Gathering and making sense of data. MEFENOREX australia, uk, us, usa, Two key buzzwords are informatics (or information science) – processing, managing, and retrieving information – and analytics – using statistics for extracting and expressing insights from large amounts of data, now frequently called “Big Data.”

Quick access to networked and cloud-based data has changed how all of us do our work, MEFENOREX natural. As a key example, ChEs have long been involved in process data acquisition and control, Buy generic MEFENOREX, but combining these aspects with informatics and analytics is creating an increasing ChE leadership role in “Smart Manufacturing.”

Data, data everywhere

First, you must have data to work with.

Suppose you can do a look-up, buy MEFENOREX no prescription. You need a heat capacity or a binding constant or the equation for a Gaussian distribution function, BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION. Maybe you pull a book off the shelf, assuming you know which book to retrieve. MEFENOREX trusted pharmacy reviews, More likely, now you open up Google or Yahoo or Bing or some other search engine.

Scott Fogler famously quoted G.J. Quarderer of Dow Chemical as saying, real brand MEFENOREX online, “Four to six weeks in the lab can save you an hour in the library.” It may not be the library any more, but the idea is the same.

[caption id="attachment_55444" align="alignleft" width="106" caption="Scott Folger"] BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION, [/caption]

Then you need the uncertainty. MEFENOREX class, How reliable is the source. Do different sources agree. Absolute accuracy is usually important, but for process development, MEFENOREX schedule, accuracy of the trend may be all you need.

Precision is another matter, Ordering MEFENOREX online, and it often isn’t listed. We rely on the author’s number of significant digits, but are they overreported, BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION.

What if you can’t find the number. You can compute some things, but a lot of things have to be measured, order MEFENOREX no prescription.

Analytics: Getting knowledge from big data

What you’re aiming for is data-driven knowledge discovery, usually to aid decision-making. MEFENOREX online cod, That includes identifying the objective, forming the question, and deciding what format of answer will be most useful. BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION, What if it’s a lot of data. The simplest analytics approach is averaging and finding a standard deviation, generic MEFENOREX. One step up might be a linear regression or other curve fit.

The book and movie Moneyball gave a human face to analytics for the public. MEFENOREX samples, Most simply, their approach was to identify statistical measures that correlated best with baseball success, examining alternative beyond traditional statistics like overall batting average.

Another development was a February 2012 New York Times article on “The Age of Big Data” that amounted to public heralding of this approach as a vital business practice, BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION.

Presently, australia, uk, us, usa, business analytics are emphasized. One type is risk analytics, MEFENOREX without a prescription, examining key vulnerabilities in the supply chain and product-delivery chain. Meanwhile, scientific and engineering analytics are advancing rapidly.

What if the data aren’t numbers at all, MEFENOREX photos. BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION, You might have a video stream or a text-based document. Once it is stored in digital form, you can identify a significant event or the most commonly used words. MEFENOREX recreational, “Word clouds” visually show the results of text mining, like the one here that is formed from this blog post.

Leading the creation of “Smart Manufacturing”

[caption id="attachment_55426" align="alignleft" width="107" caption="Jim Davis"][/caption]

ChEs are helping lead the use of data to advance “Smart Manufacturing,” which was featured recently in Chemical Engineering Progress, MEFENOREX reviews.

Its vision is using cyberinfrastructure to transform manufacturing into a seamless ecosystem of design, operation, Discount MEFENOREX, and business. Safety is an overarching goal: zero risk and zero emissions, BUY MEFENOREX NO PRESCRIPTION.

[caption id="attachment_55427" align="alignright" width="110" caption="Tom Edgar"][/caption]

Key aspects are widespread deployment of physical and chemical sensors, collection and analytics of supply-chain data, system-scale control and planning of process units, MEFENOREX use, integrated product and process design, rapid prototyping or simulation, Buy MEFENOREX without prescription, and safety monitoring.

[caption id="attachment_55428" align="alignleft" width="114" caption="Jim Porter"][/caption]

Three ChE leaders are Jim Davis, MEFENOREX canada, mexico, india, vice provost for Information Technology of UCLA; Tom Edgar, Buy no prescription MEFENOREX online, past VP of Computing at UTexas and widely known for his process-control and optimization texts; and Jim Porter, former DuPont chief engineer and vice president, Engineering and Operations, MEFENOREX from mexico.

Working with diverse industries including energy, food, MEFENOREX no rx, pharmaceuticals, machining, and materials, they have helped create a Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition that is developing both cyberinfrastructure and commercial test beds.

Chemical engineers to the fore

These advances echo my earlier thoughts that manufacturing is turning to the aspects where ChEs have long-time strengths: processing, property-dominated products, and integrated cyberinfrastructure.

At the same time, the challenge for ChEs is to master the new cyberinfrastructure concepts and tools we need, from analytics to massively parallel computing. In my next post, I’ll write about how the breadth of the profession is one of our greatest strengths as we move into our new Golden Age of Chemical Engineering.

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November 29th, 2012


By Phil Westmoreland
Super Computers

Super Computers ADIPEX-P FOR SALE, Chemical engineers saw the value of computers for their work early, as described in the previous post. For ChEs today, computing power has taken two directions, buying ADIPEX-P online over the counter, toward powerful simulations on one hand and powerful use of data on the other. Cheap ADIPEX-P, In this post, I’m writing about simulation and how supercomputing is making valuable predictions possible.

Simulation and predictions

[caption id="attachment_54314" align="alignright" width="119" caption="Sharon Glotzer"]Sharon Glotzer[/caption]

“Simulation” for ChEs usually means either predicting properties, where to buy ADIPEX-P, such as enthalpies or crystal shapes, What is ADIPEX-P, or predicting system behavior, such as with a process design model.

Simulation tools are being used in ChE around the world, ADIPEX-P duration, according to a 2009 study led by Sharon Glotzer, Churchill Professor of Chemical Engineering and Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Michigan. Her blue-ribbon panel visited 52 academic and industrial sites in Europe, Japan, and China, asking how “simulation-based engineering and science” were being used and developed, ADIPEX-P FOR SALE.

The responses were fascinating, where can i cheapest ADIPEX-P online, and the visions of the future even more so. ADIPEX-P pictures, A few examples:

  • Custom-performance materials are being developed, including tougher polymers and new catalysts.

  • Storm impacts are being predicted for tide levels and the stability of refinery facilities and supply chains.

  • Oil fields are being mapped and extraction strategies are being planned.

  • Possible pollutant-emission paths are being projected through the atmosphere and water.

  • Controlled drug release is being refined, and personalized medicines are becoming possible.

  • Not only new detergents are being designed, ADIPEX-P canada, mexico, india, but so are their breakage-resistant bottles.

  • Time and costs are being slashed for developing new jet engines by combining detailed chemical kinetics from ChEs with computational fluid dynamics from mechanical engineers.

These findings helped lead to the current U.S. Online buy ADIPEX-P without a prescription, Materials Genome Initiative and Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. An earlier study, focused on applying molecular modeling and simulation, ADIPEX-P steet value, led to university-industry initiatives in Germany and the UK.

How big are today’s supercomputers?

ADIPEX-P FOR SALE, three-hIdeally, the bigger and faster the computer, the bigger, faster, and more complete are the predictions. ADIPEX-P dose, Supercomputers have moved toward astonishing levels of performance.

One simulation milestone was last year’s crystalline-silicon simulation on China’s Tianhe-1A supercomputer, which was the fastest computer in the world in the winter of 2010-11 at 1.87 petaflops – 2•1015 floating-point (real-number) arithmetic operations per second. The key initial calculation was when ChEs from the Institute of Process Engineering at the Chinese Academy of Sciences simulated the molecular dynamics of 110 billion atoms for 0.16 nanoseconds, ADIPEX-P treatment, supposedly the largest such calculation up to that time. ADIPEX-P overnight, As of this month, the Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is now rated fastest in the world. It uses about 300, taking ADIPEX-P,000 computing cores in parallel to operate at 17.56 petaflops to a peak of 27 petaflops. Order ADIPEX-P from mexican pharmacy, It edged out Lawrence Livermore’s Sequoia supercomputer at 16.3 petaflops, Japan’s Riken K computer at 10.5 petaflops, and Argonne’s Mira at 8.2 petaflops, ADIPEX-P cost. In only two years, Tianhe-1A has fallen to #8, ADIPEX-P FOR SALE.

[caption id="attachment_54365" align="aligncenter" width="470" caption="The Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory"][/caption]

In another measure of capacity, ADIPEX-P brand name, the US Department of Energy has granted 5.7 billion CPU-hours on Titan and Mira for 2013 to applicants from around the world through its INCITE program. A typical project size might be 100 million processor hours.

Such numbers are hard to comprehend, order ADIPEX-P online c.o.d. Consider: 100 million hours is 11, ADIPEX-P images, 000 years; that long ago was when the last Ice Age was receding and agricultural societies were just beginning. ADIPEX-P FOR SALE, The larger number, 5.7 billion CPU-hours, equals 650,000 CPU-years. That is hundreds of thousands of years longer than the existence of modern Homo sapiens!

We’re the solution and the challenge

There’s a catch. All this speed depends on making the predictions using parallel computing – breaking the problem into many threads of calculation running at the same time, buy ADIPEX-P no prescription.

The good news is that abilities to use almost any computer applications have never been better among ChEs. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, What about the ability to develop applications. That’s tougher, ADIPEX-P FOR SALE.

Computer programming was a base skill in the ChE curriculum at one time, but it fell out of favor in the past 25 years, ADIPEX-P description. The main reason it had been emphasized was that we thought we would have to do it. Doses ADIPEX-P work, Instead, we now see that’s seldom the case. Spreadsheets take care of many simple calculations, ADIPEX-P used for, and it seems like there’s an app for everything else. ADIPEX-P FOR SALE, What was lost wasn’t the ability for everyone to be coding whizzes but simple computer-science concepts. A=A+1 isn’t an unsolvable algebraic problem, but an expression for modifying a number and storing it. Repeating a calculation can be done by an iterative loop instead of a tedious repetition.

More subtly, the traditional solution methods we learn in ChE are rooted in graphical or stepwise calculations. The shift toward massively parallel codes changes things, demanding that we recast the algorithms to take advantage of parallelism.

For most ChEs, that calls for new understanding of computer architectures and computer science. The application codes may well be written by software engineers, but the algorithms must come from us.

But what about real data?

For these simulations to be most useful, the data they produce must be tested against experimental data, complete with quantified experimental uncertainties. In the next post, I’ll take up the “Internet of Things,” Big Data, analytics, and how that all ties into “Smart Manufacturing.”
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November 14th, 2012


By Phil Westmoreland
Touch screen

The third reason I foresee ChE entering a new Golden Age ANSAID FOR SALE, is its ever-increasing use of computing and communication networks as a ubiquitous “cyberinfrastructure.” It powers both our understanding and our actions, shaping how we collect and use data and how we simulate, design, and predict processes and products.

Computers and more

Cyberinfrastructure has been with us for a long time, but thinking about it using that term has been just in the past ten years. “Infrastructure” refers to networks of structures and systems that underpin a society or economy, ANSAID steet value, such as roads, water pipelines, ANSAID blogs, the electrical grid, or telephone systems. Our daily lives and work are now underpinned by a cyberinfrastructure of computers, the Internet, buy cheap ANSAID no rx, portable devices, wireless and wired networks, Real brand ANSAID online, software, videoconferencing, technical support, and professional “social-media” interactions, ANSAID cost.

Computing wasn’t part of ChE in the 1950s, which is often regarded as the previous golden age of ChE. Thomas J, ANSAID FOR SALE. Herbal ANSAID, Watson, head of IBM, apparently was misquoted as saying in the 1940s, buy ANSAID without prescription, “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” Certainly at that point, computers were individual behemoths of vacuum tubes and patch wires. ANSAID long term, Scientists and engineers could nevertheless envision how such machines could automate tedious calculations. Getting access to computers was another matter, though, as companies could more easily see how computers would automate tedious financial record-keeping, ANSAID coupon.

Shift to the present

From the start of the Space Age, technical advances started tumbling in. ANSAID FOR SALE, Semiconductor microelectronics brought miniaturization of processors and memory. ANSAID results, Analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters linked the physical world and the computer, capturing vast amounts of data and signaling physical actions. Wired, fiber-optic, ANSAID street price, and wireless connections created fast networks for data exchange. Liquid-crystal displays and graphics processors brought spectacular visualization. What is ANSAID, Software has been another key to this transformation. FORTRAN and other languages made computing logic and programming accessible, ANSAID FOR SALE. New algorithms made numerical methods and simulations practical. Hypertext mark-up language led to a World-Wide Web of shared information, collaborations, ANSAID description, and commerce. The analytics field was created as statistical analyses became coupled with models to be used for discovery and decision-making. ANSAID from canada, Two profound developments of recent years are parallel processing and portable computers that aren’t perceived as computers at all. ANSAID FOR SALE, Parallel computing splits tasks to run on multiple processors at the same time, ideally(!) reducing the time for a calculation to the single-processor time divided by the number of processors. There’s quite a potential for speed-up on 560,640 processors in Oak Ridge’s Titan, the current fastest computer.

Meanwhile, ANSAID pictures, computers have become devices and computer codes have become apps. The evolution to minicomputers, then to desktop machines, and then to laptops took a dramatic turn when powerful computing and networking capabilities were built into smartphones and tablets, buy ANSAID online no prescription. Wherever you are, by using a handheld device it has become possible to check and use your email, No prescription ANSAID online, your experiment, your plant operations, your company’s stock quotation, the news, discount ANSAID, the weather, movie trailers, Purchase ANSAID for sale, and sports scores.

ChEs fit in

[caption id="attachment_53625" align="alignright" width="106" caption="Warren Seider"]Warren Seider[/caption]

For ChE, two landmark transitions into computing were in 1969, ANSAID FOR SALE.  The book Applied Numerical Methods by Carnahan, Luther, ANSAID over the counter, and Wilkes (Wiley, 1969) opened the door for many ChEs. About the same time, a group of 15 academic and industrial ChEs formed the CACHE organization (Computing Aids for Chemical Engineers), headed by Warren Seider of Penn and Larry Evans of MIT. CACHE initially emphasized design of large-scale chemical processes, buy no prescription ANSAID online, providing property databases, educational case studies, equation solvers, and educational access to the early process simulator FLOWTRAN. It later added molecular modeling and simulation, computational fluid dynamics, computational systems biology, and conferences focused on ChE computing.

[caption id="attachment_53626" align="alignleft" width="115" caption="Larry Evans"] ANSAID FOR SALE, [/caption]

Two other important steps were in 1977, when AIChE created the Computing and Systems Technology Division and the journal Computers and Chemical Engineering began publication.

An important byproduct was Evans’ and Seider’ leadership of the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN), funded in 1976 by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (later DOE) for design of fuel-conversion plants. This effort was later spun off as the process-simulation company AspenTech.

A parallel international activity has been setting the CAPE-Open standards for computer-aided process engineering (CAPE). A key aspect is the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN), a user-driven organization for testing and managing the standard.

A new era of simulation and data

For ChEs today, computing power has taken two directions, toward powerful simulations on one hand and powerful use of data on the other. The next post will reflect on these changes and on their potential to shape a new era of “Smart Manufacturing.”.


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November 7th, 2012


By Phil Westmoreland

BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION, My previous post was about how ChE has advanced bioprocessing and medicine. Here, TEGRETOL interactions, I want to reflect on how bioscience and ChE have changed each other.

Biology is transformed

Two particular developments in the early 1950s set the stage for transforming biology and for biology’s transforming ChE. One was discovering the double-helix molecular nature of DNA, TEGRETOL images, due to Rosalind Franklin, TEGRETOL alternatives, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson, and Francis Crick; the latter three won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine, TEGRETOL from canada. The other was the collection of Henrietta Lacks’ cervical-cancer cells, Where can i find TEGRETOL online, which provided part of the basis for modern tissue culturing.

The transformation was set in motion after Richard Nixon proposed the “War on Cancer” in 1971, BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION. This campaign was driven by a hope for cures, but that proved rather elusive, where to buy TEGRETOL. Some cures were developed. TEGRETOL trusted pharmacy reviews, Viruses were targeted but proved to cause only a few cancers. Interferon was expected to become a miracle drug, but it only helped with some cancers, fast shipping TEGRETOL. BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION, Instead, in hindsight, the spinoffs from the War on Cancer have had the greatest impacts, much like Kennedy’s Race to the Moon had its biggest worldwide impact in spinning off the microelectronics and computer revolution. Consider just a few of the scientific outcomes: the Polymerase Chain Reaction method, Purchase TEGRETOL,  gene-splicinginduced pluripotent stem cells, the Human Genome Project, buy cheap TEGRETOL, and relating molecular patterns to traits through genomics, Herbal TEGRETOL, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, no prescription TEGRETOL online, and so on. TEGRETOL from canadian pharmacy,

The new biology has transformed ChE

[caption id="attachment_53320" align="alignright" width="86" caption="Harvey Blanch"][/caption]

These developments have transformed ChE as well. The natural fit of existing ChE expertise and the molecular underpinnings of biology are two reasons, as discussed in the previous post, TEGRETOL without prescription. Harvey Blanch of UC Berkeley, Buy TEGRETOL without prescription, honored by the 2010 James E. Bailey Award of AIChE’s Society of Biological Engineering, captured the sweep of change in bioprocessing due to these developments in his lecture and webinar “From Biochemical Engineering to Synthetic Biology: A Short History of Engineering Impacts on Biotechnology.”

[caption id="attachment_53295" align="alignleft" width="87" caption="Carol Hall"][/caption]

Another reason is the powerful motivation of advancing personal and public health, BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION. My friend and colleague Carol Hall spoke movingly in her 2006 Institute Lecture about how her molecular simulation of fibril formation has been motivated in large part by her parents’ experiences with Alzheimer’s disease. TEGRETOL use, The new opportunities to make health-care impacts have pulled many ChEs toward medical school and into ChE bioscience.

The new bioscientific insights have also pointed to new molecularly driven biotechnologies and to additional scientific advances. A few examples:

    [caption id="attachment_53319" align="alignright" width="75" caption="Jackie Shanks"][/caption]

  • Metabolic engineering, order TEGRETOL online c.o.d. BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION, Understanding metabolic pathways and physiology is aided by measuring and modeling flux balances around organs and organisms. In turn, Where to buy TEGRETOL, it propels product-yield enhancement and points to opportunities for desirable genetic modifications. The work of Jackie Shanks at Iowa State illustrates these approaches, targeted at increasing plant production of anticancer agents using chemical analyses and math models.

  • [caption id="attachment_53302" align="alignright" width="87" caption="Frank Doyle"][/caption]

    Systems biology, TEGRETOL gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. A closely related field is systems biology, TEGRETOL results, which relies heavily on computational models of biological systems. The NIH has created ten National Centers for Systems Biology, whose diversity illustrates the interdisciplinary requirements of the field. Much of the work resembles reactor modeling with detailed kinetics networks but with systems such as cells or signaling-pathway networks used to develop and to test hypotheses, TEGRETOL dosage.

    [caption id="attachment_53321" align="alignleft" width="90" caption="Juergen Hahn"]Juergen Hahn[/caption]

    ChE process dynamics and control approaches have been applied to examine the nonlinear behaviors that are common, BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION. An example from UC-Santa Barbara is Frank Doyle’s systems-biology models of circadian rhythms, resolving the difference between the animal-scale cycle and the cellular scale. Similarly, order TEGRETOL from United States pharmacy, RPI’s Juergen Hahn has built a comprehensive model for the signaling pathways involved in inflammatory response of the liver to trauma.

    [caption id="attachment_53303" align="alignright" width="85" caption="David Tirrell"][/caption]

  • Synthetic biology. Purchase TEGRETOL online no prescription, The processes and substances of natural biology can be varied to create new substances and properties. At Caltech, David Tirrell’s lab[caption id="attachment_53306" align="alignleft" width="90" caption="Frances Arnold"][/caption] has modified natural proteins by substituting newly created amino acids and has crafted artificial genes to make new proteins, while Frances Arnold’s lab uses directed evolution to understand biological design and create new, synthetic enzymes.

    [caption id="attachment_53323" align="alignright" width="88" caption="Dan Hammer"][/caption]

  • Polymersomes. BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION, These synthetic nanoparticles are made with blockcopolymers to mimic vesicles, bubble-like[caption id="attachment_53318" align="alignleft" width="91" caption="Dennis Discher"]Dennis Discher[/caption] spherical membranes that cells use to transport materials across cell walls. Dan Hammer and Dennis Discher of the University of Pennsylvania have been leaders in developing polymersomes for uses in drug delivery and imaging.

A core part of ChE

In the 1950s, some ChEs were using conventional reactor engineering and separations for bioprocessing. It was part of the profession, but it was just one of many facets. That has changed dramatically. The overlap of biology and chemistry and materials science as molecular sciences has made bioscience and its application into parts of the intellectual core of ChE.

These advances by ChEs will continue to be significant, BUY TEGRETOL NO PRESCRIPTION. Twenty-five thought leaders from across ChE contributed to a 2008 AIChE centennial vision of the next 25 years. They predicted a range of bioscience and biotechnology impacts for ChE, from making sustainable fuels and chemicals at ambient temperatures and pressures to creating the diagnostics, information science, and medications for truly personalized medicine.

These exciting advances are part of the onset of a new Golden Age of Chemical Engineering. Next, I’ll consider the role of computers and ChE cyberinfrastructure.


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