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One of the biggest changes is the surge in production of natural gas by hydrofracturing. “Fracking” has dropped gas prices dramatically, No prescription AVODART online, altering US energy, organic-chemicals, and polymers businesses and foreshadowing changes throughout the world.
A US shale-gas boom
Hydrofracturing is more than sixty years old, AVODART steet value, but during the last four years, it has taken off in the gas-rich Marcellus shale formations in the northeastern US.
The idea of fracking is to drill horizontally for some distance within deep formations, apply hydraulic overpressure to open small fractures in close-by areas, online buying AVODART, prop them open with sand particles, and then release the hydraulic pressure so that trapped natural gas can escape and be produced. The pressurizing water and added chemicals (like guar gel, anti-corrosives, rheology enhancers) also come back out and must be treated. More details can be found in an AIChE webinar on the subject, BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION. Kjøpe AVODART på nett, köpa AVODART online, [caption id="attachment_52111" align="alignright" width="166" caption="Emil Jacobs"][/caption]
Emil Jacobs, VP of R&D for ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, contends, “The game-changing innovation that enabled the new era of natural gas in America was the combination of advancements in technology, online buying AVODART hcl, such as hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, AVODART brand name, Multi-Zone Stimulation, and others. This breakthrough combination enabled us to extract natural gas trapped in low-permeability rock safely and economically. Shale gas production scarcely existed 10 years ago and it now supports more than a million American jobs and generates billions of dollars in revenues and taxes – at a time when our economy really needs it.”
International energy implications
These approaches and impacts are being watched around the world, discount AVODART. The opportunities occur worldwide, as shown in a powerful graphic in Power magazine. BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION, Such “unconventional” natural-gas resources have become accessible around the world after a long period in which they seemed too expensive to recover.
A lot of new resources, order AVODART from mexican pharmacy, arriving surprisingly suddenly. Because gas demand hasn’t increased as rapidly as supply, AVODART for sale, US prices for gas have dropped. The Financial Times reported (7/26/2012) that lower gas prices had reduced 2nd-quarter 2012 earnings for gas producers Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil. However, Fast shipping AVODART, revenue and earnings remain sound, and consumers are happy to have cheap, clean natural gas.
At the same time, there is caution and outright opposition, mainly because of the potential for adverse environmental impacts, BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION. For example, buy cheap AVODART, neither use nor research on fracking is presently acceptable in France. At the same time, Ordering AVODART online, Hervé Toulhoat, Deputy Scientific Director at IFP Energies Nouvelles, is “struck by the large amounts of unconventional gas and oil discovered” and links this to possible occurrences of natural hydrogen. He acknowledges that economic pressures in Europe may well drive continued re-examination of the ban on fracking approaches, AVODART alternatives.
Impacts on US chemical manufacturing
The organic-chemical business is also happy to put this resource to good use. BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION, Suddenly the US olefins business is shifting to make these workhorse chemicals from ethane, propane, and natural-gas liquids rather than naphtha, returning to the long-time ideal feedstocks used in the US. At the same time, AVODART online cod, heavier naphtha byproducts are reduced, affecting those markets.
In a speech before his colleagues in the National Academy of Engineering last week, Bill Banholzer, Executive VP and Chief Technology Officer at Dow Chemical, AVODART recreational, said, “We have all seen monitors showing the rhythm of a beating heart on TV, Buy AVODART from mexico, and we know that when the line goes flat, it is a bad thing. The chemical industry experienced a flat line of sorts when natural-gas supplies dwindled, reducing our access to preferred natural-gas-liquid feeds and driving up prices, is AVODART addictive. Exports dwindled, and all reports were that no new chemical plants would ever be built in the U.S.”
Shale gas has changed all that. As Bill put it, “Abundant natural-gas supplies invigorate many parts of the economy, but potentially nowhere more significantly than in the chemical industry, BUY AVODART NO PRESCRIPTION. AVODART trusted pharmacy reviews, We serve as a great multiplier of the value that abundant gas brings. We create jobs and materials used throughout the economy, amplifying the benefit of the low-cost gas reserves.”
Bill marveled, “Given the long time frames involved in energy, cheap AVODART, it is truly remarkable the impact shale gas has had. The ability of the US to export again will be a source of jobs and prosperity.”
Emil Jacobs’ thoughts closely echoed Bill’s: “The increased natural gas supply is reinvigorating America’s petrochemical industry, AVODART reviews, which will help us develop advanced plastics and high-value consumer goods. U.S. ethane production has risen by 25 percent over the last five years, providing a feedstock cost advantage that has led to a rise in US exports as well as incremental investment in ethane cracking.”
New opportunities, new challenges
Emil summed up his views by saying, “These are very exciting times that should drive us to consider how we are developing the next generation of chemical engineers with the necessary expertise to contribute to these advances and take advantage of these opportunities.”
These changes present both new opportunities and new challenges. In next week’s post, I’ll comment about the effect on the worldwide energy picture, the environment, and development of sustainable energy resources.
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However, in the 1970s the benign perception of the ChE profession was publicly transformed by global oil-price shocks and by serious environmental abuses like Love Canal. 1984’s Bhopal disaster further shook the public’s confidence in “better living through chemistry.”
Suddenly, though, we find ourselves in the right place at the right time, BUY SONATA NO PRESCRIPTION.
What has changed. Five key reasons are:
- Manufacturing’s shift to emphasize processes and properties
- New abundance of hydrocarbon resources in the US
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- ChEs’ breadth and problem-solving approaches
Likewise, what are the challenges we face.
- Asserting leadership in the new face of manufacturing
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- Embracing our profession’s breadth
In upcoming posts, I’ll expand on each of these topics. It’s not just the ideas of chemical engineering or the stuff of statistics and generalizations. BUY SONATA NO PRESCRIPTION, It’s all of us: educators, process engineers, lab researchers, financial and management teams, HR staff, tech services, sales forces, designers, and people in local, state, and national governments.
It’s Jim Davis, Tom Edgar, and Yinlun Huang advancing “smart manufacturing.” It’s Cathryn Sundback making prosthetic ears by cell culture at Massachusetts General Hospital. It’s Don Pettit conducting research and making teaching videos on the International Space Station. It’s Kim Ogden and Robert Hesketh developing a sustainability-engineering curriculum. It’s Andy Grove fashioning Intel into a powerhouse microelectronics company. It’s Jackie Ying crafting partnerships for bionanotechnology in Singapore, Rafiqul Gani seeking to integrate product and process design, and Jens Nørskov developing new catalysts through computation, BUY SONATA NO PRESCRIPTION.
It’s each of us—and the diverse ways we use our ChE backgrounds.
Phil Westmoreland is the 2013 AIChE president and a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at North Carolina State University (NCSU). He also serves as executive director of the NCSU Institute for Computational Science and Engineering. You can read his complete bio here..
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Ultimately, a 29% boost in US ethylene capacity by 2017 will cause a profound disruption in the market. Many things have to go right for this capacity to be absorbed into the local and global market.
Many are counting on naphtha-based crackers in Europe and Asia shutting down. Yet for Europe, integrated polyethylene (PE) margins have equaled or exceeded those of US ethane-based producers in every year from 2008-2011. So far in 2012, US producers have taken the lead as ethane prices have plunged.
Chang's also worried that the industry is automatically counting on a wave of Europe cracker closures, MODALERT FOR SALE. However, remember, Ahmed felt optimistically in 2011 that the higher-cost petrochemical producers in Europe and Asia would take the fall:
"The way I see it, with 50-60% of global capacity still in the hands of naphtha-based producers, if there is demand destruction, those are the companies in greatest jeopardy," he says. "We should start thinking about the US producers, with the huge cost advantage they have now, as being more similar to Middle East producers in terms of operations. Even in a downturn, the Middle East players tend to run their facilities flat out."
Of course, 2017 and beyond lies in the haze of the distant future, and it's anyone's bet how this will play out. Whatever happens, it will be fascinating to the watch from the sidelines.
Graph: Production, Mintec, Photos: various, Dow Chemical
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"Commercially viable" gas-to-ethylene conversion is the industry’s “holy grail,” Gotz Veser, a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Pittsburgh, explained to Businessweek:
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