Series

Water Innovations

September 10th, 2013

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By Kent Harrington | Comments (0)
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BUY KETAZOLAM NO PRESCRIPTION, Today there's one rule guiding energy and water production:  technology, new and old alike, is being designed or reconfigured to increase productivity while limiting CO2 emissions. Order KETAZOLAM from United States pharmacy, This trend can be found in Australia, where Carnegie Wave Energy, buy KETAZOLAM online no prescription, KETAZOLAM use, a local company, just announced that it will become the first company in the world to build a wave-powered desalination plant, buy KETAZOLAM online cod. Buy no prescription KETAZOLAM online, This is important because desalination has been very energy intensive, and the added costs and large carbon footprint have slowed the technology's adoption, is KETAZOLAM safe. Fast shipping KETAZOLAM, The announcement comes after Carnegie signed a “co-operation agreement with Water Corp, the city of Perth's water supplier, canada, mexico, india, Purchase KETAZOLAM online no prescription, to fund a pilot desalination project alongside a wave energy project the company already has under construction on the nearby Garden Island Naval Base.

Staying ahead of the Australian drought


Perth's search for fresh water began during a decade-long drought between 1997 and 2007, discount KETAZOLAM, Where can i cheapest KETAZOLAM online, when the city saw a 21 percent decline in rainfall, and water supplies decreased by 65%. This led the city to build its first mainland desalinization plant in 2006, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal. Earlier this year, construction of a second mainland plant was completed. Together, both plants produce 100 billion litres of freshwater, quenching half of the city’s drinking water needs.

Perth made an important decision while planning its first desalination plant, BUY KETAZOLAM NO PRESCRIPTION. What is KETAZOLAM, Although new technology has made reverse osmosis desalination cheaper and more efficient, most plants – such as those throughout Saudi Arabia, KETAZOLAM street price, KETAZOLAM no rx, for example – still rely on expensive fossil fuel. Perth's Water Corp, KETAZOLAM alternatives. KETAZOLAM schedule, found the alternative of wind energy from a nearby wind farm.

By supplying an additional 55 billion litres of drinking water a year using Carnegie's wave energy, KETAZOLAM dose, KETAZOLAM photos,  Sue Murphy, Water Corp CEO, KETAZOLAM price, About KETAZOLAM,  said that Carnegie offered a “novel and promising approach” to producing desalinated freshwater with zero greenhouse gas emissions, according to Reneweconomy, KETAZOLAM coupon.

New wave energy below the surface

BUY KETAZOLAM NO PRESCRIPTION, Carnegie's patented system is different from other wave energy devices because it operates completely under water. Its 11-metre-diameter buoys bob about one to two metres below the surface. KETAZOLAM images, "We harness energy near the surface, but to protect the installation we do not use the extreme surface energy, ordering KETAZOLAM online, Buy no prescription KETAZOLAM online, " Michael Ottaviano, company CEO, told iSenta. "The challenge is storm survivability. Wave energy has a bad reputation because most designs have been surface-wave power stations that are not designed for a worst-case scenario." (A company video shows several generations of wave machines.)

The company also uses a lot of existing technology adapted from oil rigs so that the corrosive marine environment doesn't take a toll before the buoys have generated power many years. A company CGI promo explains the process:

http://youtu.be/ryQ4zQyHeOI

Carnegie's fully submerged buoys, anchored to the ocean floor, are attached to seabed pump units. The motion of the passing waves causes the buoys to move up and down, causing underwater pumps to drive pressurized water onshore by underwater pipe. Once on the shore, the high-pressure water then drives hydroelectric turbines while sending a steady water supply through reverse osmosis memebranes in a nearby desalination plant, BUY KETAZOLAM NO PRESCRIPTION.

The Garden Island project will be a significant step. Carnegie's power-supply agreement will produce its first revenue after a decade of research and development. Ottaviano says, "Onshore wind turbines have had 40 years and billions of dollars spent on them. Now more wind generation is being deployed than coal or gas. Our goal is to get to that point."

Is this a good technology for remote communities?


Images: Perth Skyline, Nachoman-au; Wave energy machine, Carnegie Wave Energy

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September 20th, 2013

BUY WYMOX NO PRESCRIPTION

By Kent Harrington | Comments (5)
2013-09-19_16-39-58 lockheed desal 6

BUY WYMOX NO PRESCRIPTION, Alarmingly, clean drinking water is becoming a severe global security issue. Competition for water is leading to instability and state failure, WYMOX street price, Purchase WYMOX for sale, with Syria the most recent example. Between now and 2040, WYMOX used for, Buy generic WYMOX, as the availability of fresh water evaporates due to population growth, agriculture, order WYMOX from mexican pharmacy, Where can i find WYMOX online, industry and urbanization, more people will fight just to survive on the lowest rungs of society.


Among wealthier countries like Israel and Saudi Arabia, is WYMOX safe, WYMOX reviews, when fresh ground water isn’t available, water is diverted from nearby oceans or rivers into desalination plants where the salt is removed through a relatively new process called reverse osmosis, WYMOX overnight, Purchase WYMOX, which produces clean drinking water.

Before the adoption of reverse osmosis, WYMOX images, Generic WYMOX, the main process of desalination had been “multistage flash distillation,” which uses heat to evaporate water, is WYMOX addictive, WYMOX use, leaving the salt behind. That accounted for 80% of all desalination installations until the 1990s, WYMOX dose.

Currently, reverse osmosis is the most popular desalination technology, where water is pumped through membranes to purify it by trapping larger particles and letting the fresh, salt-free water through pores to the other side, BUY WYMOX NO PRESCRIPTION. WYMOX no rx, Unfortunately, both methods are energy intensive, buying WYMOX online over the counter, Low dose WYMOX, making them costly and preventing poorer countries from building the necessary desalination plants. But a new technology may have leap-frogged over problem, kjøpe WYMOX på nett, köpa WYMOX online. WYMOX gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release, Reuters reports:


Engineers at US-based Lockheed Martin Corp say they have found a way to slash the amount of energy needed to remove salt from seawater, potentially making it much cheaper to produce clean water, herbal WYMOX, Effects of WYMOX, and possibly eliminating water scarcity as a global issue.


The process, which uses thin graphene sheets, WYMOX steet value, WYMOX no rx, would enable filter manufacturers to produce thin membranes with holes about a nanometer in size that are large enough to allow water to pass through but small enough to block the molecules of salt in seawater.

One hundred time less energy required


Because the graphene sheets are so thin – just one atom in thickness – it takes much less energy to push the seawater through the filter to separate the salt from the water. This could spare underdeveloped countries from having to build expensive reverse osmosis pumping stations.

"It's 500 times thinner than the best filter on the market today and a thousand times stronger, after WYMOX,"John Stetson, the engineer who has been working on the idea, told Reuters. BUY WYMOX NO PRESCRIPTION, "The energy that's required and the pressure that's required to filter salt is approximately 100 times less."

Stetson, who began working on the issue in 2007, said if the new filter material, known as Perforene, (press release) was compared to the thickness of a piece of paper, the nearest comparable filter for extracting salt from seawater would be the thickness of three reams of paper – more than half a foot thick.

"It looks like chicken wire under a microscope, if you could get an electron microscope picture of it," he said. "It's all little carbon atoms tied together in a diaphanous, smooth film that's beautiful and continuous. But it's one atom thick and it's a thousand time stronger than steel."

So once Perforene is installed, the energy used to force water through today's best membranes is gone. Stetson says,"It just literally pops right through because the membrane is thinner than the atoms it's filtering."

Lockheed expects to have a prototype by the end of the year that could be used as a drop-in replacement for filters now used in reverse osmosis plants.

Is this really a potential "game changer?"


Images: reverse osmosis plant, James Grillier; Graphene, AlexanderAlUS; Deasalination graphic, LockheedMartin

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September 25th, 2013

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By Kent Harrington | Comments (0)
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BUY BARBITAL NO PRESCRIPTION, The water crisis in Dawson Creek, British Columbia, had been growing more and more severe for years. By 2010, Get BARBITAL, an extended drought, aggravated by a growing population and fracking from the nearby natural gas industry, had nearly pushed the small city to its dry-bone limit, online buy BARBITAL without a prescription. Unfortunately, Order BARBITAL no prescription, over the next two years, the situation got even worse.

By the summer of 2012, real brand BARBITAL online, surrounded by brown lawns, Purchase BARBITAL online no prescription,  Mike Bernier, the besieged Mayor of Dawson Creek, lamented, effects of BARBITAL, “We’ve gone three months without rain up here." Outside of his small town, About BARBITAL, which is located about 700 miles northeast of Vancouver, many creeks had dried up and rivers had dropped to their lowest levels in 20 years. So later that summer, the city finally told the natural gas industry, buy BARBITAL online cod, which had been drawing one million gallons a day from the local drinking water, Where to buy BARBITAL, they'd been cut off.

Mayor Bernier explained the city's predicament, "Depending on the day, no prescription BARBITAL online, 20 to 25 percent of our pump station water is going for oil and gas." This had been a painful decision for the city, Online BARBITAL without a prescription, which normally made “millions of dollars” a year selling water to the industry for fracking.

A small price to pay for water security


Only one company, Shell Canada, managed to escape the drastic cutoff, by tapping into a different water source: city waste water, BUY BARBITAL NO PRESCRIPTION. Shell’s Groundbirch natural gas facility, one of the city's biggest water users, purchase BARBITAL online, was located about 30 miles away and had five natural gas processing plants and over 250 wells. Buy BARBITAL from mexico, Competing with other regional gas drillers, Shell had felt an urgent need to find an alternative.

So the company and the city of Dawson Creek teamed up to build an effluent treatment facility that eliminated Shell's need to tap fresh water for fracking. As a small price to pay for water security, where can i order BARBITAL without prescription, Shell invested $11 million in the project while the city provided $1.5 million. What is BARBITAL, Mayor Mike Bernier said that Shell had offered to fund the treatment plant in return for a secure supply of water for a decade. BUY BARBITAL NO PRESCRIPTION, Later in 2012, as the region reeled from the drought, Bernier dedicated the city's completed water treatment plant. Not only did the city of Dawson Creek save water every time a toilet flushed, but Shell Canada could continue to operate, BARBITAL pharmacy, while other gas projects were in jeopardy of shutting down. Where can i buy BARBITAL online,

Upgrading water treatment


Previously, Dawson Creek had been treating its effluent (waste water) to minimum environmental standards by releasing it into a local river. Now, japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, with an increased capacity of 4, BARBITAL samples, 000 cubic yards a day (3,400 going to Shell) the city was using its allotment to do things such as wash roads and water sports fields, and now it could even sell it to other drillers, buy BARBITAL without prescription.

This valuable water is created by a combination of biological steps. After a multi-step lagoon filtration process, the water is sent to SAGR cells (the Submerged Attached Growth Reactor), where microorganisms in the water break down any remaining bacteria to bring water up to a standard acceptable for industrial use, BUY BARBITAL NO PRESCRIPTION. Buy cheap BARBITAL no rx,

Piping water to Groundbirch


“It’s a win-win for both parties. The plant allowed Shell water for their operation but also left some for the city to use or sell,” said Russ Ford, executive vice-president of Shell’s onshore oil and gas business, order BARBITAL from United States pharmacy.

Shell even built a pipeline to move the water from the treatment plant 30 miles to the Groundbirch area, BARBITAL online cod, where it's stored in ponds and mixed with recycled production water. By piping the water instead of trucking it, Shell reduced traffic, BARBITAL mg, noise and dust, BARBITAL maximum dosage, while eliminating 2 million miles of truck trips a year. The following video explains the process and benefits:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YilQHTPIEE0

Mayor Bernier explained, “Now, instead of being dumped back into that river, we have about 3,600 cubic yards of water a day going through this plant that can be used for fracking," adding, "and since it also brought the city’s effluent up to grey-water standards, there isn’t a project like this anywhere else in Canada."

“Through this partnership … we're  eliminating fresh water from our operations, and providing the city with an additional source of revenue, while reducing two-million miles a year in truck traffic from local roads,” said Lorraine Mitchelmore, Shell Canada’s president.

A Shell press release reaffirmed the company's bottom line:

Shell considers the world’s water, energy, and food systems to be tightly linked: water is needed to extract energy; energy is needed to treat and transport water; and both water and energy are needed to grow food. Shell strives to conserve water in its operations through the development of new technologies and processes...

How quickly will the entire industry adopt this system?


Photo: Various, Royal Dutch Shell


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March 26th, 2014

Can Israel Save California from Its Epic Drought?

By Kent Harrington | Comments (0)
1024px-Reverse_osmosis_desalination_plant 7
This entry is part 4 of 4 in the series Water Innovations

As California runs low on potable water amidst a severe drought that has led to forest fires and idle farmland, desalination and drip irrigation could help.

Read the rest of this entry »